Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₃dónts

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

Alternative reconstructionsEdit

EtymologyEdit

This noun is usually reconstructed with the initial *h₁ and thus explained as active participle of the verb *h₁ed- (to eat). However, Aeolic ἔδοντες (édontes) appears to be a folk-etymological adaptation to ἔδω (édō), and the initial ἔ- (é-) is hence no evidence for *h₁-. Old Armenian ատամն (atamn) also points to *h₃-, as well as a prefixed Greek derivative νωδός (nōdós), which requires *n̥-h₃d- (where */h₃/ was regularly vocalized to ό in interconsonantal position). Thus, the word is ultimately an active participle of the root *h₃ed- (to bite) +‎ *-ónts.

NounEdit

*h₃dónts m[2][3]

  1. tooth
    Synonym: *ǵómbʰos

DeclensionEdit

Athematic, hysterokinetic
singular
nominative *h₃dónts
genitive *h₃dn̥tés
singular dual plural
nominative *h₃dónts *h₃dónth₁(e) *h₃dóntes
vocative *h₃dónt *h₃dónth₁(e) *h₃dóntes
accusative *h₃dóntm̥ *h₃dónth₁(e) *h₃dóntm̥s
genitive *h₃dn̥tés *? *h₃dn̥tóHom
ablative *h₃dn̥tés *? *h₃dn̥tmós
dative *h₃dn̥téy *? *h₃dn̥tmós
locative *h₃dónt, *h₃dónti *? *h₃dn̥tsú
instrumental *h₃dn̥téh₁ *? *h₃dn̥tmís

Derived termsEdit

  • *h₃dent-ós
    • Proto-Germanic: *tindaz (tooth (tool), tine, peg) (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₃dént-sneh₂ (root noun)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *déntsnāˀ (gums)
      • Proto-Slavic: *dęsnà (see there for further descendants)

DescendantsEdit

  • Proto-Armenian: *ataman
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *dantís (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *dentís (< *h₃dént-s) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *dant (< *h₃dń̥t-) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *tanþs (see there for further descendants)
    • *tunþskaz (canine tooth; tusk) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *odónts (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hdánts (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *dents (< *h₃dént-s) (see there for further descendants)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “dēns”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 166-167