This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Alternative reconstructions edit

  • *h₃nógʷʰ-s ( *h₃n̥gʷʰ-és)[1]

Noun edit

*h₃nṓgʰs m[2]

  1. nail (of the finger or toe)

Inflection edit

Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *h₃nṓgʰs
genitive *h₃negʰés
singular dual plural
nominative *h₃nṓgʰs *h₃nógʰh₁(e) *h₃nógʰes
vocative *h₃nógʰ *h₃nógʰh₁(e) *h₃nógʰes
accusative *h₃nógʰm̥ *h₃nógʰh₁(e) *h₃nógʰm̥s
genitive *h₃negʰés *? *h₃negʰóHom
ablative *h₃negʰés *? *h₃negʰmós
dative *h₃negʰéy *? *h₃negʰmós
locative *h₃négʰ, *h₃négʰi *? *h₃negʰsú
instrumental *h₃negʰéh₁ *? *h₃negʰmís

Derived terms edit

  • *h₃nogʰ-éh₂
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *nagā́ˀ (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₃nógʰ-u-s ~ *h₃n̥gʰ-éw-s[3][4]
    • Proto-Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒊭𒀭𒆪𒉿𒄿 (ša-an-ku-wa-i)
      • Luwian: [script needed] (ta-am-mu-ga /⁠tammūga⁠/)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *nagutis[5]
    • Proto-Celtic: *angʷīnā (< later *h₃n̥gʰ-ú-s[4]) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
    • Proto-Italic: *ungus (or < later *h₃n̥gʰ-ú-s)[4]
      • Latin: unguis (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Tocharian: *mekwā

Descendants edit

  • Armenian: *unug- (< accusative *h₃nógʰ-m̥)[7]
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *nágas
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hnā́kš (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*nagl-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 381
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ὄνυξ”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 1086-1087
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “unguis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 641
  5. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “naga”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden; Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 355
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Kümmel, Martin Joachim (2012), “Avestisch nāf° und nabā.-: Flexion und Wortbildung”, in Schindlers Listen: Ein Vierteljahrhundert Jochem-Schindler-Lehre[1], volume 13, Wien
  7. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden and Boston: Brill, pages 254-255