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Reconstruction:Proto-Italic/spondeō

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This Proto-Italic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-ItalicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *spondéyeti, causative verb from *spend- (to perform a rite, make an offering).

VerbEdit

*spondeō[1]

  1. to promise, to pledge

InflectionEdit

Inflection of *spondeō (second conjugation causative)
Present *spondeō
Perfect *spepondai
Past participle *sponssos
Present indicative Active Passive
1st sing. *spondeō *spondeōr
2nd sing. *spondēs *spondēzo
3rd sing. *spondēt *spondētor
1st plur. *spondēmos *spondēmor
2nd plur. *spondētes *spondēm(e?)n(ai?)
3rd plur. *spondeont *spondeontor
Present subjunctive Active Passive
1st sing. *spondeām *spondeār
2nd sing. *spondeās *spondeāzo
3rd sing. *spondeād *spondeātor
1st plur. *spondeāmos *spondeāmor
2nd plur. *spondeātes *spondeām(e?)n(ai?)
3rd plur. *spondeānd *spondeāntor
Perfect indicative Active
1st sing. *spepondai
2nd sing. *spepondistai
3rd sing. *speponde(d)
1st plur. *spepondomos
2nd plur. *spepondistes
3rd plur. *spepondēri
Present imperative Active Passive
2nd sing. *spondē *spondēzo
2nd plur. *spondēte
Future imperative Active
2nd + 3rd sing. *spondētōd
Participles Present Past
*spondēnts *sponssos
Verbal nouns tu-derivative s-derivative
*sponssum *spondēzi

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill