This Proto-Semitic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Compare with Central Atlas Tamazight ⵙⵉⵏ (sin) and Egyptian snwj; Hurrian šini (two) and Proto-Nakh *ši(n) (two).


Proto-Semitic numbers (edit)
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    Cardinal: *ṯin-


  1. two

Reconstruction notesEdit

Various tentative forms are given below to account for the descendants, many of which seem to have incorporated a dual suffix. Huehnergard reconstructs the lemma as *ṯin(ā)- to reflect both the Akkadian and West Semitic roots. Testen reconstructs *ṯn-, with an initial consonant cluster, which accounts for the r forms in Aramaic and Modern South Arabian.




  1. ^ Richard C. Steiner (2012), “Vowel Syncope and Syllable Repair Processes in Proto-Semitic Construct Forms: A New Reconstruction Based on the Law of Diminishing Conditioning”, in Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization[1], volume 67, ISSN 0081-7554, page 376
  • Huehnergard, John (2019), “Proto-Semitic”, in Huehnergard, John and Na'ama Pat-El, editors, The Semitic Languages, 2nd edition, Routledge, →ISBN
  • Testen, David (1985) "The Significance of Aramaic r < *n" Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 143-146.