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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





  1. to live


  • Samoyedic: *elä-
    • Nganasan: [script needed] (ńilyďe)
    • Enets:
      • Forest Enets: [Term?] (jire-)
      • Tundra Enets: [Term?] (iři-)
    • Nenets:
      • Forest Nenets: [Term?]
      • Tundra Nenets: илесь (jiľeś)
    • Selkup: [Term?]
    • Kamassian: [script needed] (ďili, lively)
    • Mator: [script needed] (илинде, lively)
  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: él
    • Khanty: [Term?]
    • Mansi: [Term?]
  • Permic:
  • Mari:
  • Samic: *ealētēk (see there for further descendants)
  • Finnic: *elädäk (see there for further descendants)

The Mordvinic verbs for "to live", Erzya эрямс (erjams) and Moksha эрямс (erjams), have often been suspect to be related as well, though phonetically they correspond poorly to the words in the other Uralic languaegs.


  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. →ISBN.

Further readingEdit