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Linguistic questionEdit

Hi. I have never studied linguistics before and I would like to know the name of a concept I had in mind. let's call it “word”, then:

  • かえる, 帰る, 返る and kaeru are different spellings of the same “word”
  • kaeru “to return” and kaeru “frog” are different “words”
  • kaeru “to return” and kaetta “returned” are different “words”

Do you know what such a concept of “word” is called in linguistics? (Also pinging @Suzukaze-c)

By the way, what do you think about this suggestion (adapted from my userpage)?

Don't overuse the word “reading” in etymology sections like this:

The sora reading for changes to zora as an instance of rendaku (連濁). The reading was aosora until roughly the mid-Meiji Period.

Someone who is raised up in a Japanese-speaking family, but has never been exposed to the Japanese writing system, will still pronounce the word as aozora. This makes it clear that sora undergoes rendaku whether it is a “reading”. A better wording would be:

The sora changes to zora as an instance of rendaku (連濁). The word was phonographically attested in the shape aosora until roughly the mid-Meiji Period.

--Dine2016 (talk) 10:20, 2 January 2019 (UTC)

Also pinging @Poketalker. --Dine2016 (talk) 10:29, 2 January 2019 (UTC)
Kaeru and kaetta are different forms of the same word.
Reading probably means “pronunciation” there, but it is not a good word to describe a phonological change. — TAKASUGI Shinji (talk) 12:33, 2 January 2019 (UTC)
@Dine2016: Important: "kaeru" is not a Japanese word or a "spelling". It's a romanisation of Japanese words written in kana or kanji. You can use it in a discussion if you don't feel like entering native script or copying but it's an important distinction. The fact that we keep romanisation for two languages made this fact blurred. I thought I'd mention, since your 2nd line looks weird to me. :) --Anatoli T. (обсудить/вклад) 13:43, 2 January 2019 (UTC)
Thanks for your reply. Actually what I had in mind was this:

For each Japanese word (e.g. ikikaeru “to revive”), one spelling (e.g. 生き返る) is chosen by the editors as the main entry on Wiktionary to hold all the information of the word. The main entry uses {{ja-spellings}} to list and link to the alternative spellings (e.g. いきかえる), and the alternative spellings use {{ja-see}} to provide soft redirects to the main entry. (In the case of multiple etymology sections, each etymology section could be a main entry or a soft redirect, as is the case at 貴方.)

Here the definition of a “word” is obviously different from the lexeme in linguistics, and “main entry” different from the lemma form, because the soft redirection is between different spellings of a given form instead of between different forms of a word. However, using the term “forms” might sound strange (e.g. “The Japanese section describes n word forms if it has n etymology sections”). Do you have better terms?
@Atitarev: You're right. I was under the mistaken belief that romaji was an official writing system of Japanese. However, it can transcribe speech directly rather than from kana or kanji. --Dine2016 (talk) 05:52, 3 January 2019 (UTC)

두음법칙 in South KoreaEdit

Here is the source. Sincerely, Park.두음_법칙

  • 杜詩諺解 初刊本 (성종 12년 : 1481)“셩이 니가 (姓李的)”
  • 訓蒙字會 [중종 22년(1527). 아동에게 한자의 音과 뜻을 정확하게 가르치기 위해 지은 책] 李’ 자의 音과 뜻을 ‘외엿니’ 라고 했음 [참고로 ‘柳’ 자는 ‘버들류’로 되어 있음)
  • 東國新續三綱行實 [광해군 9년(1617)에 왕명에 의하여 국가 사업으로 편찬된 孝子, 忠臣, 烈女의 기록집] 李壽慶(니슈경), 李慶男(니경남), 李宅仁(니?인) 등 ‘李’지는 모두 ‘니’로 표기됨
  • 癸丑日記 (光海君 때, 仁穆大妃 內人) 니이첨(李爾瞻) 니덕형(李德馨) 니?복(李恒福)
  • 古時調集 南薰太平歌 [純祖 때에 편찬된 것으로 추정됨. 作者 未詳의 時調]“옛날에 니??도”“그곳에 니젹선(李謫仙) 소동파
  • 한글로 된 小說에 있는 ‘니’씨 姓 표기 春香傳 : “젼나도 남원부? 니등이 ? 아?을 두어스니 ”九雲夢 : “니쇼화(李蕭和)은 황졔의 ?이니”意幽堂集 : “니번은 뉼곡 형이라 파쥐예 잇더니 서울 드러와“니탁 - 니상국 탁은 셩묘됴 명신이라
  • 獨立新聞 창간호 [1896년 4월 7일 창간. 최초의 한글 전용 신문] 관찰사 니건하. 문쳔 군슈 니한용. 회계원 출납과장 니용교” 등 모두 ‘니’로 표기됨.

‘李’ 자를 ‘리’로 표기한 것은 조선왕조 초기에도 간혹 용례가 있지만 주로 후기에 많이 나타난다.

  • 內訓 - 李링氏씽女녕戒갱예 닐오?(선조 때. 초간본은 성종 때)
  • 東國正韻 - ‘링’로 표기됨 (上聲. 5권 16장)
  • 三韻聲彙(영조 27년 : 1751년) - ‘리’로 표기됨
  • 李鳳雲의 국문정리 서문 (1897) “리봉운 ?셔(李鳳雲 自序)”
  • 兪吉濬의 朝鮮文典 (1906) “리슌신(李舜臣)은 인명이니”
  • 崔南善의 新字典(1915) - ‘리’로 표기됨 < ‘이’로 表記된 用例 >‘李’ 자를 ‘이’로 표기한 용례는 많지 않다. 주로 문학 작품에서 찾아볼 수 있다.
  • 烈女春香守節歌 “잇? 삼쳔동 이할임(李翰林)이라 하난 양반이 잇스?”
  • 歌辭 作品 - 朴履和의 萬古歌 “이??(李太白)"
It doesn't matter when the spellings were changed so. What matters here on Wiktionary is whether or not they are used now. You can insist that the Korean orthography was altered by the Japanese colonial government, but you cannot delete correct information of today's Korean. — TAKASUGI Shinji (talk) 03:21, 24 March 2019 (UTC)

"이" solely by itself has no specific meaning unless specified by its underlying hanja or derived from context. I deleted the words that are left blank. Also, These "이" are not related with surname 이(李), which should have been written 리(李). Sincerely, Park.


Why did you revert to a previous version? 박동(beat,搏動) 심장은 펌프와 비슷한 작용을 하는데, 주기적으로 수축하여 혈액을 동맥 속으로 밀어내고, 이완하여 정맥에서 오는 혈액을 내강에 채운다. 이때 판막의 개폐가 차례로 일어나 혈액의 역류를 막음으로써 펌프 작용이 원활하게 반복되고 이에 의하여 혈액이 온몸을 순환한다. 이와 같은 심장의 수축과 확장의 반복을 박동이라고 한다

I’m sorry I didn’t notice that. I reverted your edit because you used incorrect sections like “Sino-Korean 박” and “English Korean 박”. That’s all. — TAKASUGI Shinji (talk) 09:45, 25 March 2019 (UTC)
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