See also: forta

Old Irish




From for- (over-) +‎ ·tá (to exist). Cognate with Welsh gorfod (to have to, to be compelled to do).






  1. to remain, be left over
    Synonym: ar·tá
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 23d17
      .i. for·mbed a ainm ind fir-so ł is a macc dia æs cenibed á ainm-som bes foir.
      i.e. that the name of this man should survive, or it is his son after him, although it might not be his name which he has.
    • c. 815-840, “The Monastery of Tallaght”, in Edward J. Gwynn, Walter J. Purton, transl., Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, volume 29, Royal Irish Academy, published 1911-1912, paragraph 57, pages 115-179:
      Ni haurcul laisim dano cid ar·faomtar ní o lex-áos & a tabirt detsiu iarum do bochtaib neich for·bé lortid do muindtir de, fo bith in maith leisim bess, ni tabrait ní de dena bochtaib.
      For him, there is no prohibition against something being accepted from idle folk, given that afterwards you sg give to the poor anything that is left of it when your sg own monks are satisfied, because if it is in the hands of the idle, they give none of it to the poor.
  2. to be upon
  3. there follows, furthermore
  4. to be superior over



Like at·tá (to be, exist), this verb distinguishes between habitual and non-habitual conjugations in the present tense.


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
for·tá for·thá for·tá
pronounced with /-d(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading

  • Gregory Toner, Sharon Arbuthnot, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, Marie-Luise Theuerkauf, Dagmar Wodtko, editors (2019), “for-tá”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language
  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “gorfod”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies