English edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English for-, vor-, from Old English for-, fer-, fær-, fyr- (far, away, completely, prefix), from the merger of Proto-Germanic *fra- ("away, away from"; see fro, from) and Proto-Germanic *fur-, *far- (through, completely, fully), from Proto-Indo-European *pro-, *per-, *pr-. Cognate with Scots for-, West Frisian fer-, for-, Dutch ver-, German ver-, Swedish för-, Danish for-, Norwegian for-, Gothic 𐍆𐍂𐌰- (fra-), Latin per-. More at for.

Pronunciation edit

  • (stressed) IPA(key): /fɔː(ɹ)/
  • (unstressed) IPA(key): /fə(ɹ)/

Prefix edit

for-

  1. (no longer productive) Far, away; from, out.
    forbid, forget, forsay; forbear, fordeem
  2. (no longer productive) Completely; to the fullest extent; superseded by combinations with up in senses where no upward movement is involved, e.g. forgive = "give up (one's offenses)", forgather = "gather up", forbeat = "beat up".
    forbreak
  3. (dialectal, obsolete) Very; excessively.
    forolded (very old)
    fornigh (very near)

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Anagrams edit

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse for-, from Proto-Germanic *fra-.

Prefix edit

for-

  1. Makes verbs from adjectives meaning "to cause to be [adjective]".
    for- + ‎skøn (beautiful) + ‎-e (infinitive suffix) → ‎forskønne (beautify)
    for- + ‎sød (sweet) + ‎-e → ‎forsøde (sweeten)
    for- + ‎uren (unclean) + ‎-e → ‎forurene (pollute)
  2. Denotes initial or preparatory action; pre-.
    for- + ‎bore (drill) → ‎forbore (drill a hole for screwing)
    for- + ‎arbejde (work) → ‎forarbejde (preparatory work)

Usage notes edit

This element appears in a great number of adapted loanwords from German, Low German and Dutch, to render ver- or vor-, such as in fordærve (to decay, to rot). In these cases, it may represent senses that are no longer, or never were, productive in Danish.

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

See for.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [for]
  • Hyphenation: for

Prefix edit

for-

  1. Movement to a distance.
    for- + ‎pafi (to shoot) → ‎forpafi (to frighten off)
    for- + ‎veturi (to drive) → ‎forveturi (to drive away)
  2. Disappearance or annihilation.
    for- + ‎akrigi (to sharpen) → ‎forakrigi (to file down)
    for- + ‎leki (to lick) → ‎forleki (to lick off)

Derived terms edit

French edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Middle French [Term?], from Old French for-, partially from Late Latin forīs, taken as an adaptation of the adverb forīs (outdoors, outside) and used to calque Frankish words prefixed by *fur- (for-) (compare Late Latin foris faciō (to do wrong) = Old High German firwirken (to do wrong), forisfactus (evil deed) = Gothic 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌷𐍄𐍃 (frawaurhts, evil deed), foris coⁿsilio (to mislead) = Old High German firleitan (to mislead), etc.), and partially continuing from Proto-Germanic *fur-, *fer-, *fra- (away, from, off), from Proto-Indo-European *pro-, *per-, *pr-. See for-. Related to French fors (except), French hors (outside).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

for-

  1. (nonproductive) prefix used to express error, exclusion, or inadequacy

Related terms edit

Icelandic edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse for-, from Proto-Germanic *fra-.

Prefix edit

for-

  1. previous, before, first, pre-
    for- + ‎síða (page) → ‎forsíða (front page)
  2. (emphatic) extremely
  3. negative meaning

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Terms derived from for- meaning “before”
Terms derived from for- used emphatically
Terms derived from for- used to imbue a negative meaning

Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Celtic *uɸor-.

Prefix edit

for-

  1. over, superior, super-
  2. outer, external
  3. great, extreme

Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
for- fhor- bhfor-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

Middle English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old English for-, from Proto-West Germanic *fra-, from Proto-Germanic *fra-, from Proto-Indo-European *pro-.

The Old English prefix was reinforced by Proto-West Germanic *furi-, from Proto-Germanic *furi-; In Middle English, this prefix is further reinforced by Old French for-, from Latin foris.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

for-

  1. Forms verbs meaning "far", "out" or with an intensive sense; for-.
  2. Forms verbs denoting a failure or error; for-.
  3. (no longer productive) Forms nouns with varying sense.

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • English: for-
  • Scots: for-

References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Prefix edit

for-

  1. previous, before, first, pre-
    for- + ‎side (page) → ‎forside (front page)
  2. (emphatic) extremely
  3. negative meaning

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Terms derived from for- meaning “before”
Terms derived from for- used emphatically
Terms derived from for- used to imbue a negative meaning

Old English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *fra-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

for-

  1. wrongly, away from, astray, abstention, prohibition, perversion, destruction (verbal prefix)
    forwyrcanto do wrong, sin
    forstandanto defend, protect, stand for
    forweorpanto throw away, cast away, reject
    forstelanto steal away, deprive
    fordēmanto condemn
    forlǣdanto mislead; seduce
  2. used to create intensified adjectives and verbs from other adjectives and verbs, with the sense of completely or fully; compare Modern English use of up
    forblāwanto blow up, inflate
    forbrecanto break up, break into pieces
    forstoppianto stop up, block, occlude
    forworendecayed, decrepit
  3. very
    forlȳtelvery little

Usage notes edit

  • This prefix was almost always unstressed, in both nouns and verbs.

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

Old Irish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Celtic *uɸor-. Prefix form of for.

Prefix edit

for-

  1. over-

Derived terms edit

Old Saxon edit

Prefix edit

for-

  1. Alternative form of far-