frøken

See also: fröken

DanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Low German vrouweken, vrouken, a diminutive of vrouwe, vruwe, from Proto-Germanic *frawjǭ (lady), cognate with German Frau (woman), Dutch vrouwe (lady), vrouw (woman) (Danish frue, fru and Swedish fru are borrowed from Low German). For the semantic development of the diminutive, compare German Fräulein (Ms.).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /frøːˀkən/, [ˈfʁ̥œˀɡ̊ŋ̩], (pretonic) IPA(key): [fʁ̥œɡ̊ŋ̩]

NounEdit

frøken c (singular definite frøkenen or (unofficial) frøknen, plural indefinite frøkener or frøkner)

  1. (dated) Miss, miss (an unmarried woman)

InflectionEdit


Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Low German vroiken, vrouken.

NounEdit

frøken m or f (definite singular frøkenen or frøkna, indefinite plural frøkner, definite plural frøknene)

  1. Miss, miss (an unmarried woman)
  2. a female teacher

Usage notesEdit

Historically only used for unmarried daughters of the nobility, later also daughters of civil servants and the higher bourgeoisie (compare with jomfru which was generally used for daughters of the bourgeoisie in the early modern period), commonly adopted for all unmarried women in the 20th century. Rarely used in daily conversations since around 1970. Common English words like mister, miss etc. have become very archaic in ordinary Norwegian speech during the last decades of the 20th century.

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Low German vroiken, vrouken.

NounEdit

frøken f (definite singular frøkna, indefinite plural frøkner, definite plural frøknene)

  1. Miss, miss (an unmarried woman)
  2. a female teacher

Usage notesEdit

As for Bokmål above.

ReferencesEdit