improbus

LatinEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From in- +‎ probus.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

improbus (feminine improba, neuter improbum, comparative improbior, superlative improbissimus, adverb improbē); first/second-declension adjective

  1. excessive, immoderate, flagrant, impudent
  2. greedy, wanton
  3. wicked, immoral, impious, rude
  4. shameless
8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 2.331:
noctis erat medium, quid nōn amor improbus audet?
It was midnight – what doesn’t wanton desire dare?
It was midnight – what doesn’t wicked lust dare?
It was midnight – what doesn’t shameless passion dare?

(Ovid's use of improbus can be translated several ways.)

DeclensionEdit

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative improbus improba improbum improbī improbae improba
Genitive improbī improbae improbī improbōrum improbārum improbōrum
Dative improbō improbō improbīs
Accusative improbum improbam improbum improbōs improbās improba
Ablative improbō improbā improbō improbīs
Vocative improbe improba improbum improbī improbae improba

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • French: improbe
  • Portuguese: ímprobo
  • Spanish: ímprobo
  • Italian: improbo

ReferencesEdit

  • improbus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • improbus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • improbus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • improbus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the aristocracy (as a party in politics): boni cives, optimi, optimates, also simply boni (opp. improbi); illi, qui optimatium causam agunt