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EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English in-, from Old English in- (in, into, prefix), from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en. More at in.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, intalk, inwork
AntonymsEdit
Related termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from Latin in-, from Latin in, from Proto-Indo-European *en (cognate to Germanic in-, above). Often borrowed from French in- (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication), or as French en-, originally from Latin [Term?].

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
Usage notesEdit

In direction sense, used in Latinate terms, and opposed by ex-, e-, rather than Germanic out-; senses not always strict antonyms. Examples include infiltrate/exfiltrate, ingress/egress, invade/evade.

AntonymsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Latin in- (not). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
Related termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin in-.

PrefixEdit

in- (before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived termsEdit



DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-



FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin in-.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (before a consonant) /ɛ̃/, (before a vowel) /in/

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Derived termsEdit



GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

in-

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌽-

IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. en-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-

Derived termsEdit



ItalianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin in (in”, “into), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notesEdit
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + ‎arido (dry”, “arid) → ‎inaridire (to parch”, “to dry up)
in- + ‎fiamma (flame) → ‎infiammare (to enflame”, “to kindle)
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of “into”, “inside”:
Example:
in- + ‎fondere → ‎infondere (to infuse”, “to instill) (cfr. Latin īnfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of “into” can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + ‎carcere (jail”, “prison) → ‎incarcerare (to imprison”, “to incarcerate)

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin in-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notesEdit
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + ‎coerente (coherent”, “consistent) → ‎incoerente (incoherent”, “inconsistent)
in- + ‎abile (able”, “capable) → ‎inabile (unable”, “incapable)
in- + ‎felice (happy) → ‎infelice (unhappy)
in- + ‎desiderabile (desirable; advisable) → ‎indesiderabile (undesirable, unwelcome)
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + ‎colore (colour) → ‎incolore (uncoloured)

Derived termsEdit



LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Italic *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (not), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne (not). Akin to ne-, , .

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. un-, non-, not
Usage notesEdit

Affixed primarily to adjectives.

The spelling of the prefix changes in some situations:

Derived termsEdit


DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Prefixation of in.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, inside
Usage notesEdit

Affixed primarily to verbs.

Not to be confused with in- (not).

Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

  • in- in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 301

Old EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From in (in). More at in

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, into; on, upon
    in- + ‎blāwan (to blow; to breathe) → ‎inblāwan (to inspire, breathe upon)
    in- + ‎ēodan → ‎inēodan (to enter)
    in- + ‎ēþung → ‎inēþung (inspiration)
  2. internal, positioned on the inside, inside
    in- + ‎coþu (disease, sickness) → ‎incoþu (internal disease)
    indryhten (distinguished, noble, courtly, excellent), from indryhtu (honor, glory, nobility)
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *in- (strong, adj), from Proto-Indo-European *indʰro- (swelling; strong), from *oyd- (to swell).

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + ‎frōd (wise) → ‎infrōd (very old, experienced, wise)
    in- + ‎dryhten (noble) → ‎indryhten (very noble)

Old IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Celtic *eni-. Prefix form of i.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in

Usage notesEdit

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

  • Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), pp. 518–22

Etymology 2Edit

PrefixEdit

in- (class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

PortugueseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • im- (before P or B)
  • ir- (before R)

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. un-; not

Derived termsEdit



SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin in-

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. not (negation)

Derived termsEdit



SwaziEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-ǹ-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


XhosaEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-ǹ-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


ZuluEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-ǹ-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v). Before l, m or n, the prefix becomes i-.

ReferencesEdit