EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PIE word
*h₁én

From Middle English in-, from Old English in- (in, into, prefix), from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én. More at in.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, inmove, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, intalk, inwork
SynonymsEdit
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
terms derived from in-: toward
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle English in-, borrowed (in words of Latinate origin) from Latin in-, from Latin in, from Proto-Indo-European *en (cognate to Germanic in-, above). Often borrowed from French in- (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication), or as French en-, originally from Latin in.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
Usage notesEdit

In direction sense, used in Latinate terms, and opposed by ex-, e-, rather than Germanic out-; senses not always strict antonyms. Examples include infiltrate/exfiltrate, ingress/egress, invade/evade.

SynonymsEdit
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
terms derived from in-: direction
terms derived from in-: tendency

Etymology 3Edit

PIE word
*ne

From Middle English in-, borrowed (in words of latinate origin) from Latin in- (not). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
terms derived from in-: reversing meaning
TranslationsEdit
Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

PrefixEdit

in- (before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived termsEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-

FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (before a consonant) /ɛ̃/, (before a vowel) /in/
  • (file)

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Derived termsEdit


GermanEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en. More at in.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (rare) in, into
    Synonyms: ein-, inne-
    in- + ‎Schrift (writing) → ‎Inschrift (inscription)
    in- + ‎Sasse (someone who sits) → ‎Insasse (passenger, inhabitant)
    in- + ‎Begriff (concept) → ‎Inbegriff (embodiment)
Usage notesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from Latin in-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (rarely productive, only with Latinate stems) in, into
    in- + ‎filtrieren (to filter) → ‎infiltrieren (to infiltrate)

Etymology 3Edit

Borrowed from Latin in-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (rarely productive, only with Latinate stems) in-, un- (indicates negation)
    Synonyms: un-, nicht-
    in- + ‎konsequent (consistent) → ‎inkonsequent (inconsistent)
Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • in-” in Duden online
  • in-” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

in-

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌽-

IndonesianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Dutch in-, from French in-, from Latin in- (un-, not).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ɪn]
  • Hyphenation: in

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in-: used with certain words to reverse their meaning.

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. capable of, fit for, fit to be
    Antonym: do-

Etymology 2Edit

From i, in (in).

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. en-, in-, il-, im-, ir-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-
Alternative formsEdit

Derived termsEdit

MutationEdit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
in- n-in- hin- t-in-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit

  • "in-" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “in-” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

ItalianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /in/
    • Hyphenation: in-
  • IPA(key): [iɱ] (before f or v)
  • IPA(key): [iŋ] (before c or g)

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin in-, a prefixation of in (in, into), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notesEdit
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + ‎arido (dry”, “arid) → ‎inaridire (to parch”, “to dry up)
in- + ‎fiamma (flame) → ‎infiammare (to enflame”, “to kindle)
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of “into”, “inside”:
Example:
in- + ‎fondere → ‎infondere (to infuse”, “to instill) (cfr. Latin īnfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of “into” can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + ‎carcere (jail”, “prison) → ‎incarcerare (to imprison”, “to incarcerate)

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin in- (un-, not), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notesEdit
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + ‎coerente (coherent”, “consistent) → ‎incoerente (incoherent”, “inconsistent)
in- + ‎abile (able”, “capable) → ‎inabile (unable”, “incapable)
in- + ‎felice (happy) → ‎infelice (unhappy)
in- + ‎desiderabile (desirable; advisable) → ‎indesiderabile (undesirable, unwelcome)
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + ‎colore (colour) → ‎incolore (uncoloured)
Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit


LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Italic *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (not), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne (not). Akin to ne-, , .[1]

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. un-, non-, not
Usage notesEdit

Affixed primarily to adjectives.

The pronunciation or spelling of the prefix may be changed in some situations:

  • Before b, p or m, it may become im-. The spelling in- is also found in this context.
    in- + ‎barba (beard) → ‎imberbis (beardless) or inberbis.
    in- + ‎patiēns (patient) → ‎impatiēns (impatient) or inpatiēns.
    in- + ‎mātūrus (mature) → ‎immātūrus (immature) or inmātūrus.
  • Before l or r, it may become il- or ir-, respectively. These assimilations only became usual in post-Augustan Latin: until a late date, the usual Roman spellings were inl- and inr-.[2]
    in- + ‎labōrātus (worked, toilsome) → ‎illabōrātus (unworked, uncultivated) (post-Augustan) or inlabōrātus.
    in- + ‎reverēns (reverent) → ‎irreverēns (irreverent) (post-Augustan) or inreverēns.
  • Before gn and sometimes n, it becomes ig- (pronounced [ɪŋ-]).
    in- + ‎gnārus (knowlegable) → ‎ignārus (ignorant)
    in- + ‎nōmen (name) → ‎ignōminia (dishonor)
  • Before f or s, it becomes īn- (pronounced [ĩː-]).
    in- + ‎fīnītus (finite) → ‎īnfīnītus (endless, infinite)
    in- + ‎sānus (healthy, sane) → ‎īnsānus (mad, insane)
  • Before g, c or q, the spelling remains in-, but the pronunciation becomes [ɪŋ-].
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Catalan: in- (sometimes i-, or im- before p, b and m)
  • French: in-
  • Italian: in-
  • Middle English: in-
  • Portuguese: in- (im- before p or b, i- before l, n, or m, and ir- before r))
  • Spanish: in- (im- before p or b, i- before l, and ir- before r)

Etymology 2Edit

Prefixation of the preposition in.[3]

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, within, inside
    in- + ‎hālō (breathe) → ‎inhālō (breathe in, inhale)
  2. into, upon, on, against
    in- + ‎gradior (step, go) → ‎ingredior (go into, enter)
    in- + ‎nūbō (marry) → ‎innūbō (marry into)
    in- + ‎cadō (fall) → ‎incidō (fall into, fall upon)
    in- + ‎pangō (set, fix, settle, fasten) → ‎impingō (fasten upon, dash against, strike against)
    in- + ‎flīgō (strike) → ‎inflīgō (strike on, strike against, inflict, impose upon)
    in- + ‎vocō (call) → ‎invocō (call on, call upon, invoke)
  3. Used as an intensifier.
    in- + ‎crepō (I rattle) → ‎increpō (I rattle, rebuke)
  4. Attached to inchoative verbs, can express the sense of a change being started or reaching partial completion
    in- + ‎ārēscō (I am drying, am growing drier) → ‎inārēscō (I start becoming dry, become somewhat dry)[4]
Usage notesEdit

Affixed primarily to verbs.

The same spelling rules apply as for Etymology 1 above; see the usage notes there.

Not to be confused with Etymology 1 above, which means "not".

Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *énu (along, after). Cognate with Sanskrit अनु (after, ánu-), Avestan 𐬀𐬥𐬎(anu, after; corresponding to), Old Persian 𐎠𐎵𐎺 (a-nu-v /anuv/), and Gothic 𐌹𐌽𐌿 (inu, without) (whose meaning developed “along” > “past” > “without”).[5]

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. after
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1938), “1. in-”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 1, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pages 676f.
  2. ^ William Gardner Hale and Carl Darling Buck, 1903. Latin Grammar, page 25
  3. ^ Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1938), “2. in”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 1, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pages 677f.
  4. ^ Haverling, Gerd. "On Prefixes and Actionality in Classical and Late Latin." Acta Linguistica Hungarica, vol. 50, no. 1–2, 2003, pp. 113–35, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26189816. Accessed 6 Apr. 2022. Page 117
  5. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014), “Lexikon [Lexicon]”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, pages 241-44

Further readingEdit

  • in-”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 301

MalteseEdit

PronunciationEdit

ArticleEdit

in-

  1. Alternative form of il-

Usage notesEdit

  • Used before the letter n. For details on usage, see the main lemma.

Northern NdebeleEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


OjibweEdit

InitialEdit

in- (root)

  1. Alternative form of iN-

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Alternative form of nin-

See alsoEdit


Old EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From in (in). More at in.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in, into
    in- + ‎ēþung (breathing) → ‎inēþung (inspiration)
  2. internal, inside
    in- + ‎coþu (disease) → ‎incoþu (internal disease)
    in- + ‎weorc (work) → ‎inweorc (indoor work)
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle English: in-

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *in- (strong, adj), from Proto-Indo-European *indʰro- (swelling; strong), from *oyd- (to swell).

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + ‎frōd (wise) → ‎infrōd (very wise)
    in- + ‎dryhten (noble) → ‎indryhten (very noble)
Derived termsEdit

Old IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Celtic *eni-. Prefix form of i. Conflated with ind- quite early.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. in
Usage notesEdit

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Celtic *an-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Alternative form of an- (un-, not)
Usage notesEdit

Used before d and g and occasionally other sounds.[1]

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Thurneysen, Rudolf (1940, reprinted 2003)D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, →ISBN, § 872, page 544

Etymology 3Edit

PrefixEdit

in- (class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

PortugueseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • im- (before p or b)
  • ir- (before r)
  • i- (before m, n or l)

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. un-; not

Derived termsEdit


SpanishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • im- (before p or b)
  • ir- (before r)
  • i- (before l)

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. not (negation)

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


SwaziEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


TagalogEdit

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Prefix form of -in.

Derived termsEdit


XhosaEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

PrefixEdit

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


ZuluEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

PrefixEdit

ín-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notesEdit

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v). Before l, m or n, the prefix becomes i-.

ReferencesEdit