はる

JapaneseEdit

NounEdit

はる (romaji haru)

  1. : spring (season)

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

  • はるめく (春めく)

VerbEdit

はる (godan conjugation, romaji haru)

  1. 張る: stretch, tighten, strain; freeze, turf
  2. 貼る: stick, paste, post, paper

SuffixEdit

はる (romaji -haru)

  1. (Kansai) verbal suffix expressing respect to subject of verb; X-a-haru is equivalent to standard o-X-i ni naru.

Usage notesEdit

Characteristic of traditional Kyoto 敬語 (keigo, honorific/court language), used throughout Kansai dialect. Intermediate in politeness between base (informal) form of verb and polite -masu form, though in Kyoto widely used in casual speech, and much closer to informal.

  • In Osaka and surrounding areas, attaches to -masu stem.
  • In Kyoto and surrounding areas, such as Nara and Shiga, attaches to -a inflection of verb; with vowel stems, takes epenthetic -ya-: toor-u → toora-haru (= otoori ni naru). ik-u → ika-haru (= irassharu). mi-ru → miya-haru (= goran nasaru). suru → shi-haru. kuru → ki-haru. i-ru (to be) → iya-haru.
  • After て form of verb, is equivalent to irassharu: kangae-te haru (= kangaete irassharu).
  • Inflects as regular verb: perfective はった etc: dokkara kihatta? "Where have you come from?"
  • 〜はる can in turn take ます for additional politeness, yielding 〜はります, and other polite endings such as 〜んです, yielding 〜はるんです.

ConjugationEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Palter, DC and Slotsve, Kaoru Horiuchi (1995). Colloquial Kansai Japanese: The Dialects And Culture of the Kansai Region. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3723-6, pp. 32–34
Last modified on 12 October 2013, at 17:36