- (English) as bar:
- N̄ /ˈɛn.bɑɹ/
- (English) as bar:
- (linguistics) Used to indicate mid tone.
- See ‾ for the overline, which is used in mathematics.
- (grammar) Used to denote an X-bar.
In English, this is called macron.
¯ • (¯)
- The supralinear stroke, placed over a syllabic consonant.
- A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called マクロン (“macron”) in Japanese, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī, Ō/ō and Ū/ū.
Other romanization systems, particularly Kunrei-shiki, use the circumflex (^) for that purpose.
- A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called signum productionis (“macron”) in Latin, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī, Ō/ō and Ū/ū. (used in grammars and dictionaries)
- ˘ (signum correptionis)
- A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called garumzīme (“macron”) in Latvian, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī and Ū/ū.
- Used to mark long vowels: ā = [aː], ē = [ɛː] or [æː], ī = [iː], ū = [uː].
- For a short while (1908-1919), it was also used with the letter o (ō) to mark long [oː] in words of foreign origin, but this usage has since then been abandoned.
- Letters with macrons are considered as separate letters with different names, and listed in the alphabet after the same letters without macron (i.e., ā after a, ē after e, ī after i, and ū after u). In actual practice, however, letters with and without macrons are treated as the same letter in alphabetized lists (e.g., in dictionaries), unlike letters with cedillas (ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ) or háčeks (č, š, ž), which are kept separate in alphabetized lists.
- A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called 長音符號 (“macron”) in Mandarin, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī, Ō/ō, Ū/ū and Ǖ/ǖ.
- Written on a letter, usually a vowel, in place of an omitted n or m.
- c. 975–1025, Beowulf (Cotton MS Vitellius A XV), published 4th quarter 10th century–2nd half 16th century, lines 4–6, page 132r:
- oꝼꞇ ꞅcẏlꝺ ꞅceꝼınᵹ ꞅceaþen[a] þꞃeaꞇum moneᵹū mæᵹþum meoꝺo ꞅeꞇla oꝼ ꞇeah eᵹꞅoꝺe eoꞃl sẏððan æꞃeꞅꞇ ƿeaꞃð ꝼea ꞅceaꝼꞇ ꝼunꝺen
- oft scyld scefing sceaþen[a] þreatum monegū mægþum meodo setla of teah egsode eorl syððan ærest wearð fea sceaft funden
- (translation from “A Translation of the Anglo-Saxon Poem of Beowulf With a Copious Glossary Preface and Philological Notes” by John M. Kemble, 1837, London: William Pickering, “Beowulf.”, page 1)