ˣ U+02E3, ˣ
Spacing Modifier Letters ˤ

Translingual edit

Symbol edit


  1. (IPA) [x]-fricated release of a plosive, sometimes implying an affricate.
  2. (IPA) [x]-coloring
  3. (IPA) A weak, fleeting or epenthetic [x]

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

Often traced back to Suomen kielen äänne- ja muotorakenne (1983) by Finnish linguist Fred Karlsson.

Symbol edit


  1. (linguistics) jäännöslopuke; represents the tendency for a morpheme to cause gemination (rajakahdennus) after it. Always appears at the end of a morpheme.

Usage notes edit

This symbol is not used in general Finnish writing, but in linguistic descriptions of Finnish, including of Finnish dialects. It is, for example, seen on the English Wiktionary in phonemic transcriptions of Finnish words. The gemination (which in almost all cases has developed from a lost final *-k or *-h) and its effects, or whether it is present at all, depends on the dialect and sometimes even the speaker, and not all speakers exhibit gemination in all contexts.

In general writing, the tendency to cause gemination is not represented in any way, unless it has become fully lexicalized (such as in taikka). In colloquial and nonstandard writing, it may sometimes surface as gemination, such as jonnekin (/ˈjonːeˣkin/) being written as jonnekkin (which is closer to the pronunciation for most speakers).