Open main menu

Wiktionary β



Ancient GreekEdit


From σᾰ́φ- (sáph-), the root of σαφής (saphḗs, clear), + -ᾰ (-a, adverbial suffix).


  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /sá.pʰa/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈsa.pʰa/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈsa.ɸa/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈsa.fa/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈsa.fa/
  • AdverbEdit

    σάφα (sápha) (Epic, Attic)

    1. clearly, obviously, assuredly
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 2.31
        ἠέ τιν’ ἀγγελίην στρατοῦ ἔκλυεν ἐρχομένοιο,
        ἥν χ’ ἥμιν σάφα εἴποι, ὅτε πρότερός γε πύθοιτο;
        ēé tin’ angelíēn stratoû ékluen erkhoménoio,
        hḗn kh’ hḗmin sápha eípoi, hóte próterós ge púthoito?
        or has he heard some news of a coming army, which he would tell us clearly, when he first discovered [it]?
      • 472 BCE, Aeschylus, The Persians 337–338
        Αγ[γελος]   πλήθους μὲν ἂν σάφ’ ἴσθ’ ἕκατι βάρβαρον
        ναυσὶν κρατῆσαι.
        Ag[gelos]   plḗthous mèn àn sáph’ ísth’ hékati bárbaron
        nausìn kratêsai.
        Messenger: As to numbers, know assuredly that the foreigner would have the upper hand in ships

    Usage notesEdit

    Often used with verbs of knowing, such as οἶδα (oîda).