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Ancient GreekEdit


From Proto-Indo-European *wóyde, from *weyd-. Compare the very closely related εἴδομαι (eídomai, to seem). Cognates include Old Armenian գիտեմ (gitem), Sanskrit वेद (veda), Latin vīdī, and Proto-Germanic *witaną (English wit).


  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /ói̯.da/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈy.da/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈy.ða/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈy.ða/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈi.ða/
  • VerbEdit

    οἶδᾰ (oîda)

    1. (transitive) to know, be acquainted with [+accusative = something]
      1. (with neuter accusative plural of an adjective): have a quality in one's heart
      2. (transitive) to be skilled in [+genitive = something]
    2. (intransitive) to know how to [+infinitive = do something]
    3. (transitive, when main verb and participle have separate subjects) to know that [+accusative noun and accusative participle = someone else does something]
      1. (intransitive, when subject of main verb and subject of participle are the same) to know that [+nominative participle = one does something]
      2. to know that, with accusative and then an indirect statement introduced by ὅτι (hóti) or ὡς (hōs)
      3. (negative) οὐκ οἶδα εἰ (ouk oîda ei): I don't know if or whether, I doubt that
    4. (parenthetic)
    5. (a superlative is often followed by the phrase "ὧν ἴσμεν")

    Usage notesEdit

    The perfect inflections function as present tense, and the pluperfect as imperfect. The inflection is highly variable and irregular, and reflects a more archaic inflectional pattern.


    Related termsEdit


    • *εἴδω in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    • οἶδα in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
    • οἶδα in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
    • οἶδα in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
    • οἶδα in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
    • G1492 in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, 1979
    • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.