Ancient Greek

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Apparently from a Proto-Hellenic *ksún, but further connections are uncertain. Younger form of Homeric and Old Attic ξύν (xún), Mycenaean Greek 𐀓𐀱 (ku-su /⁠*ksun⁠/). These probably reflect Proto-Indo-European *som- (one, together (with)) contaminated with the *ḱ of *ḱóm (beside, with) along with a conflation of their meanings. However, the /u/ is unexpected and unexplained under this proposal. Note that a derivation from *som- alone is impossible since the *s- would be expected to give h- (aspiration); neither is the ks- explainable from *ḱóm alone. This makes its exact relation to Lithuanian and Proto-Slavic *sъ(n) dubious, but if indeed a conflation of *ḱóm and *som-, it s a cognate relation regardless.[2]

The dative that this preposition governs continues the PIE comitative-instrumental.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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σῠ́ν (sún) (governs the dative)

  1. beside, with

Usage notes

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  • In compounds it has similar applications, including completeness, simultaneity.

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Greek: συν (syn)
  • Yevanic: שִׁין (šin)
  • Dutch: syn-
  • English: syn-, sym-
  • French: syn-
  • German: syn-
  • Italian: sin-, sim-
  • Polish: syn-

References

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  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “σύν”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1422
  2. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “ξύν”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1038

Further reading

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