Gari Ledyard proposes that ㄴ (n) was derived from ㄷ (d) by removing its top stroke. The traditional account* holds that its form is that of the outline of the tongue in contact with the hard palate (presumably in profile), 舌附上腭之形, and Ledyard feels this consideration may have determined the final forms of ㄷ and ㄴ.
* Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye “Explanations and Examples of the Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People” (1446), defining and explaining the script now known as 한글 (han-geul, “Great script, Korean script”) in South Korea and 조선글 (joseon-geul, “Korean script”) in North Korea.
- IPA(key): /n/
- Actual realisation:
- (mostly) IPA(key): [n]
- (after /l/) IPA(key): [l]
- (before /l/, in some words) IPA(key): [l]
ㄴ • (n)
- 니은 (nieun, “nieun”), a jamo (letter) of hangeul; the alveolar nasal (/n/)
In the North Korean order, ㄴ (n) is the second jamo. In the South Korean order, it is the third.
- ㄷ (d) (in traditional account)
Contraction of 은 (eun) / 는 (neun).
ㄴ • (n)
- a colloquial variant of 는 (neun).
- Geugeon aniji!
- That's not (fair)!
First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as ᄂᆞ (Yale: no).
—ㄴ • (-n)
- a present tense suffix
- 가다 (gada, “to go”) → 그녀도 간다. (Geunyeodo ganda, “She goes as well.”)
나는 그녀도 간다는 소식을 들었다.
- Naneun geunyeodo gandaneun sosigeul deureotda.
- I heard the news that she goes as well.
The suffix ㄴ (-n-) is directly attached to the stem of a verb ending in a vowel or the consonant ㄹ (l), which drops out.
- E.g. 살다 (salda, “to live”) → 나는 강릉에 산다. (Naneun Gangneung-e sanda., “I live in Gangneung.”)
—는— (-neun-) is used instead when the stem ends in a consonant other than ㄹ (l).
- —ᆫ다 (-nda)
- —ᆫ데 (-nde)
- —ᆫ지 (-nji)
- —ᆫ대 (-ndae)
- —ᆫ다고 (-ndago)
First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as ᄋᆞᆫ/은 (Yale: o/un).
—ㄴ • (-n)
- a past tense suffix making a verb a determiner.
- a present tense suffix making an adjective a determiner.
The suffix ㄴ (-n) is appended to the sequential form. If the stem ends in the consonant ㄹ (l), it drops out.
- E.g. 새벽 하늘이 아름답다. (아름다우니) (Saebyeok haneuri areumdapda. (areumdauni), “The sky at daybreak is beautiful.”) → 아름다운 새벽 하늘 (areumdaun saebyeok haneul, “the beautiful sky at daybreak”)
- 트럭에 목재를 싣다 (실으니) (teureoge mokjaereul sitda (sireuni), “to load a truck with wood”) → 목재를 실은 트럭 (mokjaereul sireun teureok, “a truck which sb had loaded with wood”)
- 비바람이 모질다. (모지니/모질면) (Bibarami mojilda. (mojini/mojilmyeon), “The storm is harsh.”) → 모진 비바람 (mojin bibaram, “the harsh storm”)
- 는 (neun): present tense marker for a verb.
- 던 (deon): retrospect past tense marker
- ㄹ (l): future tense marker
Contraction of 너라 (neora).
—ㄴ • (-n)
- a plain style imperative ending used only for 오다 (oda, “to come”); usually told to babies and pets, offering friendlier and softer sense.
아가, 이리 온.
- Aga, iri on.
- Dear baby, come here!