-яем

BulgarianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Slavic *-ějemъ, present passive participle ending of ě/i- and ě-conjugation verbs. In Modern Bulgarian, the derivatives constructed with this suffix are interpreted as normal adjectives.

SuffixEdit

-яем (-jaem)

  1. (rare) Deverbial from transitive verbs in ě-conjugation (effectively via a secondary inchoative ěva-derivative), forms adjectives expressing susceptibility or possibility: -able
    овладея (ovladeja, to exhibit control)овладявам (ovladjavam, to conquer)овладяем (ovladjaem, conquerable)
    преодолея (preodoleja, to overcome)преодолявам (preodoljavam, to surmount)преодоляем (preodoljaem, surmountable)
    проумея (proumeja, to understand, grasp)проумявам (proumjavam, to figure out)проумяем (proumjaem, comprehensible)
    повелея (poveleja, to declare)повелявам (poveljavam, to command)повеляем (poveljaem, imperative)
  2. (rare) Deverbial from transitive transitive verbs in ě/i-conjugation, forms adjectives expressing capacity, susceptibility, eventuality, or condition: -able
    горя (gorja, to burn, to inflame)горяем (gorjaem, inflammable)
    летя (letja, to fly)летяем (letjaem, flyable)
  3. (rare) Deverbial from transitive verbs in ěva-conjugation, forms adjectives expressing capacity, susceptibility, eventuality, or condition: -able
    спасявам (spasjavam, to save)спасяем (spasjaem, savable)
    изживявам (izživjavam, to experience)изживяем (izživjaem, experienceable)
Usage notesEdit

Adjectives formed with -яем (-jaem) (< -ѣѥмъ (-ěѥm)) are semi-interchangeable with parallel adjectives in -им (-im) (e.g. отклоняем (otklonjaem, divertable) vs отклоним (otklonim, divergeable). The former usually imply a continuous/repeatable capacity, while the later - punctual capacity (something that is possible or liable to happen once).

Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Slavic *-jajemъ, present passive participle ending of ja-conjugation verbs.

SuffixEdit

-яем (-jaem)

  1. (semi-productive) Deverbial from transitive verbs in ja-conjugation, forms adjectives expressing capacity, susceptibility, eventuality, or condition: -able
    сменям (smenjam, to change)сменяем (smenjaem, changeable)
    добавям (dobavjam, to add)добавяем (dobavjaem, addable)
  2. (productive) Deverbial from transitive verbs inja(va)-conjugation, forms adjectives expressing capacity, susceptibility, eventuality, or condition: -able
    управлявам (upravljavam, to govern, to rule)управляем (upravljaem, governable, controllable)
    склонявам (sklonjavam, to conjugate)склоняем (sklonjaem, conjugatable)
    обвинявам (obvinjavam, to judge, to accuse)обвиняем (obvinjaem, defendant) (legal term)
    вменявам (vmenjavam, to impose, to show mental capacity)вменяем (vmenjaem, sane)
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • St. Stoyanov (1983) , “Прилагателни имена от причастия”, in Граматика на съвременния български книжовен език, volume 2, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, page 150