See also: and -더-

Korean edit

Etymology edit

Shortened from 이더 (-ideo), variant pronunciation of 이다 (-ida, politeness-attaching particle), grammaticalized from the copula 이다 (-ida, to be).

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit


  1. (Changwon Gyeongsang) A vocative case marker showing respect for the addressee without conceding one's own social status.
    Coordinate terms: (-a, self-assertive), 이더 (-ideo, self-humbling)
    서방, 오데 ?Gim-seobang-deo, ode ga-yo?Mr. Kim, where are you going? (from Lee 2005, p. 225)

References edit

  • 이기갑 (Yi Ki-gap) (2000), “국어 방언의 조사 체계 [The particle systems of Korean dialects]”, in Eoneohak, volume 27, pages 201—233