-이다

See also: 이다

KoreanEdit

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?-ida
Revised Romanization (translit.)?ida
McCune–Reischauer?ida
Yale Romanization?ita

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Korean 이다〮 (Yale: -ì-tá), from Old Korean (*i-). For the dialectal politeness particle use, compare (-yo), Southwestern Korean 이라우 (-irau), both of which come from the copula.

AdjectiveEdit

이다 (-ida) (infinitive or 이어, sequential 이니)

  1. to be; the Korean copula.
    Antonym: 아니다 (anida)
    사람 동물이다.Saram-eun dongmur-ida.Humans are animals.
    나무 이다.I namu-neun keun pyeon-ida.This tree is on the big side.
    전쟁 바람직하지 않은 이다.Jeonjaeng-eun baramjik-haji aneun ir-ida.War is undesirable business.
    악마 한때 천사였다.Angma-do hanttae cheonsa-yeotda.The Devil was too once an angel.
Usage notesEdit
  • The declarative ending (-da) changes to (-ra) in some environments; see (-ra) for details.
  • 이다 (ida) is the Korean positive copula. Along with its negative, 아니다 (anida), it is sometimes categorized as an adjective, but more often placed in their own grammatical category distinct from both verbs and adjectives. Some grammars classify 이다 (ida) as a particle and, like a particle, it is appended to the preceding word without an intervening space.
  • See 있다 (itda) for the existential "be".
ConjugationEdit
  • The chart below is for consonant-final nouns.
  • After a vowel-final noun, the initial vowel (-i-) is deleted when followed by a syllable beginning with a single consonant ( (-ya) included), except in quite formal language:
    / 바다dor-i-da / bada-dait's a stone / it's the sea
    / 바다dor-i-ya / bada-yait's a stone / it's the sea
    / 친구jeog-i-get-da / chin'gu-get-dahe's probably an enemy / he's probably a friend
  • It is not normally deleted when followed by a consonant cluster, except in quite colloquial language:
    나무니다 / 나뭅니다namu-i-mnida / namu-mnidait is a tree / it is a tree (colloquial)
  • It is not deleted when used as a noun or adnominal.
    나무 / 나무namu-i-n / namu-i-mwhich is a tree / it being a tree

ParticleEdit

이다 (-ida)

  1. (eastern Jeolla dialect, southwestern Gyeongsang) A particle attached to intimate-, plain-, and semiformal-style verbs and adjectives to add a greater level of politeness.
    Synonyms: (Standard Seoul) (-yo), (Jeolla) 이라우 (-irau)
Alternative formsEdit
  • (-da)after vowels
  • 이더 (-ideo), (-deo)after consonants

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Korean 이다 (-i-ta).

SuffixEdit

이다 (-ida)

  1. Attached to certain ideophonic roots to derive verbs without frequentative effect.
    펄럭 (peolleok, fluttering, ideophonic root) + ‎이다 (-ida) → ‎펄럭이다 (peolleogida, to flutter)
    끄덕 (kkeudeok, nodding, ideophonic root) + ‎이다 (-ida) → ‎끄덕이다 (kkeudeogida, to nod)
See alsoEdit
  • (with frequentative effect) 거리다 (georida)
  • (with frequentative effect) 대다 (daeda)