KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 가다〮 (Yale: kàtá).

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ka̠da̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?gada
Revised Romanization (translit.)?gada
McCune–Reischauer?kada
Yale Romanization?kata

VerbEdit

가다 (gada) (infinitive , sequential 가니) (more often intransitive, see Usage notes)

  1. to go
    가자!Gaja!Let's go!
    (file)
    서울 가요.Seoure gayo.I'm going to Seoul.
    (file)
    대화 산으로 간다.
    Daehwaga saneuro ganda.
    The conversation is going nowhere.
    (literally, “The conversation is going to the mountains.”)
    그들 개관식 참석하러 베이징으로 갔다. (formal)
    Geudeureun gaegwansige chamseokhareo Beijing'euro gatda.
    They went to Beijing for the opening.
    (file)
    Synonym: 예다 (yeda, archaic)
    Antonym: 오다 (oda, to come)
  2. (auxiliary, with (eo)) Marks a continuous action that either stretches from the present into the future, or involves physical movement away from the speaker.
    먹어간다.Da meogeoganda.I've almost finished my food.
    땅거미 찾아오고 석양 저물어 간다.
    Ttanggeomiga chajaogo seogyang'eun tto jeomureo ganda.
    Dusk has found its way, and the evening sun is setting again [and will continue to do so].
    Antonym: 오다 (oda, continuous action from the past or towards the speaker)
  3. (of cracks and wrinkles) to appear
    유리geumi gan yuriglass that has cracked
  4. (of time) to pass
    올해 갔다.Olhaedo tto da gatda.This year has all but passed away, too.
    Synonyms: 흐르다 (heureuda), 지나다 (jinada)
  5. (specifically transitive) to last
    사흘 결심
    saheuldo mot gan gyeolsim
    a determination that did not last even three days
  6. (colloquial) to be knocked out (e.g. by a blow, by alcohol, etc.)
  7. (vulgar) to orgasm
  8. Used as the verbal element for nouns related to understanding or interest.
    짐작 .Jimjagi ga.I can conjecture.
    관심 .Gwansimi ga.I'm interested in it.
    인정 못하겠는데 이해 .
    Injeong'eun mothagenneunde ihaeneun ga.
    I might not be able to accept it, but I understand.
  9. (euphemistic but not honorific) to pass away

Usage notesEdit

  • Transitivity: Korean verbs of movement are variably intransitive and transitive:
    • If the destination of the movement is not a space or only a small one, it is intransitive: 나무 가다 (namue gada, to go to a tree), 가다 (nae bang'e gada, to go to my room).
    • If the destination of the movement is an extended space into which one enters, it can be both transitive and intransitive with no significant change in meaning: 중국으로 가다 (Junggugeuro gada, to go to China), 중국 가다 (Junggugeul gada, to go to China). But intransitive use is rather more common, and transitive use may be understood as emphatic.
    • If the object is a path that one goes on, it is transitive: 가다 (gireul gada, to go on a road), 인도 가다 (indoreul gada, to go on the pavement).
    • With the exception of "to last", which is always transitive, the various extended senses are intransitive.
  • Conjugation: This verb has two forms for the plain-style 해라체 (haerache) imperative. The blunt form is regular: 가라 (gara, Go!). The less blunt form is irregular: 가거라 (gageora, Go (well)!). Other verbs with the irregular non-blunt form include 일어나다 (ireonada, to get up), 자라다 (jarada, to grow), 자다 (jada, to sleep), and compound verbs ending in this verb. Historically, this reflects the perseverance of the Middle Korean suffix (Yale: -ke).

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

(verbal expressions with nouns)

(compound verbs with verbs)

(other)


Middle KoreanEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ka˨ta˦/, [ka˨da˦]

VerbEdit

가다〮 (kàtá) (infinitive 가〮, sequential 가니〮)

  1. (intransitive) to go (especially somewhere for a certain purpose)
    Antonym: 오다〮 (wòtá, to come)
  2. (auxiliary, with 어〮 ()) Marks a continuous action that either stretches from the present into the future, or involves physical movement away from the speaker.
    Antonym: 오다〮 (wòtá, continuous action from the past or towards the speaker)

Usage notesEdit

Middle Korean had two or three verbs equivalent to Modern 가다 (gada, to go) or English "to go": 가다〮 (kàtá), 니다〮 (nìtá), and 녀다〮 (nyètá). Whether 니다〮 (nìtá) and 녀다〮 (nyètá) were different verbs, or whether the former was an allomorph of the latter appearing in compound verbs and before the suffix (ke), is unclear.

It is believed that 가다〮 (kàtá) had a stronger emphasis on the purpose of the movement, while 니다〮 (nìtá) / 녀다〮 (nyètá) had a stronger emphasis on the physical movement itself. For example, only 가다〮 (kàtá) is attested with a human indirect object (i.e. expressing "to go to a person [for something]"); the indirect objects taken by 니다〮 (nìtá) / 녀다〮 (nyètá) are all real or metaphorical spaces. However, both could be used to translate the same Chinese verb, showing that the semantic distinction was not so strict.

ConjugationEdit

Selected conjugations of 가다〮 (kàtá), Accentual class H!
Note that some forms are merely hypothetical, such as the object-honoring forms of most adjectival verbs.
Selected plain sentence-final forms
Declarative Interrogative Modulated
declarative
Polar question Wh-word question Second-person subject
Past 가다〮 (kàtá)
가니〮라〮 (kànílá)
간가〮 (kànká)
가녀〮 (kànyé)
간고〮 (kànkwó)
가뇨〮 (kànyó)
간다〮 (kàntá) 가〯라〮 (kǎlá)
Present 가〮ᄂᆞ다〮 (kánòtá)
가〮ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (kánónìlá)
가〮ᄂᆞᆫ가〮 (kánònká)
가〮ᄂᆞ녀〮 (kánònyé)
가〮ᄂᆞᆫ고〮 (kánònkwó)
가〮ᄂᆞ뇨〮 (kánònyó)
가〮ᄂᆞᆫ다〮 (kánòntá) 가〮노라〮 (kánwòlá)
Conjectural 가리〮라〮 (kàlílá) 가ᇙ가〮 (kàlqká)
가려〮 (kàlyé)
가ᇙ고〮 (kàlqkwó)
가료〮 (kàlyó)
가ᇙ다〮 (kàlqtá) 가〯리라〮 (kǎlìlá)
Retrospective/
imperfective
가〮더라〮 (kátèlá)
가〮더〮니라〮 (káténìlá)
가〮던가〮 (kátènká)
가〮더녀〮 (kátènyé)
가〮던고〮 (kátènkwó)
가〮더뇨〮 (kátènyó)
가〮던다〮 (kátèntá) 가〮다라〮 (kátàlá)
(-ke-) form 가〮거다〮 (kákètá)
가〮거〮니라〮 (kákénìlá)
가〮거녀〮 (kákènyé) 가〮거뇨〮 (kákènyó) 가〮건다〮 (kákèntá) 가〮과라〮 (kákwàlá)
Promissive/Hortative Imperative Exclamatory/Emotive
가〯마〮 (kǎmá, promissive)
가져〮 (kàcyé, hortative)
가라〮 (kàlá, order)
가고〮라〮 (kàkwólá, request)
간뎌〮 (kàntyé), 갈쎠〮 (kàlssyé)
가〮도다〮 (kátwòtá), 가〮돗다〮 (kátwòstá)
가〮애라〮 (káàylá)
Selected highly deferential sentence-final forms
Past 가ᅌᅵ다〮 (kàngìtá)
가니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kàníngìtá)
가니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (kàníngìská) 가니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (kàníngìskwó) no separate forms 가〯ᅌᅵ다〮 (kǎngìtá)
Present 가〮ᄂᆞ〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kánóngìtá)
가〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kánòníngìtá)
가〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (kánòníngìská) 가〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (kánòníngìskwó) 가〮노〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kánwóngìtá)
Conjectural 가리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kàlíngìtá) 가리〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (kàlíngìská) 가리〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (kàlíngìskwó) 가〯리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kǎlíngìtá)
Retrospective/
imperfective
가〮더〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (káténgìtá)
가〮더니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kátèníngìtá)
가〮더니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (kátèníngìská) 가〮더니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (kátèníngìskwó) 가〮다〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kátángìtá)
(-ke-) form 가〮거〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kákéngìtá)
가〮거니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kákèníngìtá)
가〮거니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (kákèníngìská) 가〮거니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (kákèníngìskwó) 가〮가〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kákángìtá)
Promissive/Hortative Imperative Exclamatory/Emotive
가〯마〮 (kǎmá, promissive)
가사〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kàsángìtá, hortative)
가〮쇼셔〮 (kásyòsyé, order)
가고〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kàkwóngìtá, request)
가〮도다〮 (kátwòtá), 가〮돗다〮 (kátwòstá)
가〮애ᅌᅵ다〮 (káàyngìtá)
Selected honorific declarative forms
Past Present Conjectural Retrospective/
imperfective
(-ke-) form
Plain subject-honoring 가〮시다〮 (kásìtá)
가〮시〮니라〮 (kásínìlá)
가〮시〮ᄂᆞ다〮 (kásínòtá)
가〮시ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (kásìnónìlá)
가〮시〮리라〮 (kásílìlá) 가〮더〮시다〮 (kátésìtá)
가〮더시〮니라〮 (kátèsínìlá)
가〮거〮시다〮 (kákésìtá)
가〮거시〮니라〮 (kákèsínìlá)
Deferential subject-honoring 가〮시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kásíngìtá)
가〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kásìníngìtá)
가〮시ᄂᆞ〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kásìnóngìtá)
가〮시〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kásínòníngìtá)
가〮시리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kásìlíngìtá) 가〮더〮시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kátésíngìtá)
가〮더〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kátésìníngìtá)
가〮거시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kákèsíngìtá)
가〮거〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kákésìníngìtá)
Plain object-honoring 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯다〮 (kázǒptá)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮니라〮 (kázòWónìlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯ᄂᆞ다〮 (kázǒpnòtá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (kázǒpnónìlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮리라〮 (kázòWólìlá) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯더라〮 (kázǒptèlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯더〮니라〮 (kázǒpténìlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯거다〮 (kázǒpkètá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯거〮니라〮 (kázǒpkénìlá)
Plain subject- and object-honoring 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮시다〮 (kázòWósìtá)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮시〮니라〮 (kázòWósínìlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮시〮ᄂᆞ다〮 (kázòWósínòtá)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮시ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (kázòWósìnónìlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮리라〮 (kázòWólìlá) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯더〮시다〮 (kázǒptésìtá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯더시〮니라〮 (kázǒptèsínìlá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯거〮시다〮 (kázǒpkésìtá)
가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯거시〮니라〮 (kázǒpkèsínìlá)
Selected connective forms
Plain Subject-honoring Object-honoring Plain Subject-honoring Object-honoring
Conjunctive/consecutive/infinitive ("and, next, then, with this, etc.")
가고〮 (kàkwó) 가〮시고〮 (kásìkwó) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯고〮 (kázǒpkwó) 가〮 () 가〮샤〮 (kásyá) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᅡ〮 (kázòWá)
가며〮 (kàmyé) 가〮시며〮 (kásìmyé) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮며〮 (kázòWómyé) 가〮다가〮 (kátàká) 가〮시〮다가〮 (kásítàká) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯다가〮 (kázǒptàká)
Causative ("because, since, as, given that, etc.")
가니〮 (kàní) 가〮시니〮 (kásìní) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮니〮 (kázòWóní) 가〮거ᄂᆞᆯ〮 (kákènól) 가〮거〮시ᄂᆞᆯ〮 (kákésìnól) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯거ᄂᆞᆯ〮 (kázǒpkènól)
Only in declarative sentences: Only in interrogative sentences:
갈ᄊᆡ〮 (kàlssóy) 가〮실ᄊᆡ〮 (kásìlssóy) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞᆯ〮ᄊᆡ〮 (kázòWólssóy) 가관〮ᄃᆡ〮 (kàkwántóy) 가〮시〮관ᄃᆡ〮 (kásíkwàntóy) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯관ᄃᆡ〮 (kázǒpkwàntóy)
Conditional/situating ("when, if, in response, etc.")
가면〮 (kàmyén) 가〮시면〮 (kásìmyén) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮면〮 (kázòWómyén) 가〮거든〮 (kákètún) 가〮거〮시든〮 (kákésìtún) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯거든〮 (kázǒpkètún)
간대〮 (kàntáy) 가〮신대〮 (kásìntáy) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞᆫ〮대〮 (kázòWóntáy) 가〮건댄〮 (kákèntáyn) 가〮거〮신댄〮 (kákésìntáyn) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯건댄〮 (kázǒpkèntáyn)
Contrastive/concessive ("but, although, despite, etc.")
가나〮 (kàná) 가〮시나〮 (kásìná) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮나〮 (kázòWóná) 가〯ᄃᆡ〮 (kǎtóy) 가〮샤ᄃᆡ〮 (kásyàtóy) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᅩ〮ᄃᆡ〮 (kázòWwótóy)
간ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (kàntól) 가〮신ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (kásìntól) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞᆫ〮ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (kázòWóntól) 가〮건〮마ᄅᆞᆫ〮 (kákénmàlón) 가〮거신〮마ᄅᆞᆫ〮 (kákèsínmàlón) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯건〮마ᄅᆞᆫ〮 (kázǒpkénmàlón)
Purposive/desiderative ("in order to, as to, for, etc.")
가〯려〮 (kǎlyé) 가〮샤려〮 (kásyàlyé) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᅩ〮려〮 (kázòWwólyé) Not used for verbs of state or movement:
가라〮 (kàlá) 가〮시라〮 (kásìlá) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮라〮 (kázòWólá)
Speaker desires their own action: Speaker desires another's action:
가고〮져〮 (kàkwócyé) 가〮시〮고져〮 (kásíkwòcyé) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯고져〮 (kázǒpkwòcyé) 가과〮뎌〮 (kàkwátyé) 가〮시〮과뎌〮 (kásíkwàtyé) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯과뎌〮 (kázǒpkwàtyé)
Adnominal/gerundive forms
Past Present Conjectural Retrospective/
imperfective
(-ke-) form
Unmodulated non-honorific (kàn) 가〮ᄂᆞᆫ〮 (kánón) 가ᇙ (kàlq) 가〮던〮 (kátén) 가〮건〮 (kákén)
Modulated non-honorific 간〯 (kǎn) 가〮논〮 (kánwón) 가ᇙ〯 (kǎlq) 가〮단〮 (kátán) not used outside fossilized compounds
Unmodulated subject-honoring 가〮신〮 (kásín) 가〮시ᄂᆞᆫ〮 (kásìnón) 가〮시ᇙ〮 (kásílq) 가〮더신〮 (kátèsín)
Unmodulated object-honoring 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞᆫ〮 (kázòWón) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯ᄂᆞᆫ〮 (kázǒpnón) 가〮ᅀᆞᄫᆞᇙ〮 (kázòWólq) 가〮ᅀᆞᆸ〯던〮 (kázǒptén)
Substantive forms
Plain Subject-honoring Object-honoring
감〯 (kǎm)
가〮샴〮 (kásyám)
가〮ᅀᆞᄫᅩᆷ〮 (kázòWwóm)

DescendantsEdit

  • Korean: 가다 (gada)

ReferencesEdit

  • 김천학 (2004) , “()()()() '가다, 니다, 녀다'에 관한 ()() [A study of ka-ta, ni-ta, and nye-ta in Middle Korean]”, in Eomun yeon-gu, volume 32, issue 4, pages 141—162
  • ()()() (2020) , “()()()()()()() ()() [A study of synonyms in the Dusi eonhae]”, in Hangugeosa yeon-gu, volume 6, pages 7—141