EsperantoEdit

EtymologyEdit

The a vowel of present-tense -as plus the t of the Latin/Romance/German passive perfect participle.

SuffixEdit

-at-

  1. (patient substantive) -ato or -aton Accusative do'ee of an action, in a present relative to when the corresponding verb took place.
    influi (to influence)influaton (influencee)
    Mi estos la influaton de miaj amikoj.
    I will be the influencee of my friends.
  2. (adjectival participle) ata or -atan Characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a present relative to the verb. (passive present participle)
    influi (to influence)influatan (influenced)
    Mi estis influatan de miaj amikojI was influenced by my friends.
  3. (adverbial participle) -ate In a way characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a present relative to the verb. (passive present adverbial participle)
    influi (to influence)influate (in a way influenced)
    Mi estos politikiston influate de miaj amikojI will be a politician in a way influenced by my friends.

Usage notesEdit

Even if the word takes the nominative form (e.g. influato), the word forms a substantive as-if an accusative for the participle's root.

Rule 6 inconsistencyEdit

Implied from rule 6 in Fundamento de Esperanto, all passive adjectival participles modify a noun associated with some form of esti (to be).
That interpretation requires the premise that Esperanto orthography might only place adjectives in the categories "passive" or "participle".
Thus an Esperantist might need new categories to describe the orthography for adverbs or nouns such as "karmic" substantives or adverbs.

The §21 "La feino (Daŭrigo)." example text includes the sentence "Li venis al mi tute ne atendite." with a rule 6 interfix but without a form of esti.