EsperantoEdit

EtymologyEdit

The i vowel of past-tense -is plus the t of the Latin/Romance/German passive perfect participle.

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)

SuffixEdit

-it-

  1. (patient substantive) -ito or -iton Accusative do'ee of an action, in a past relative to the verb.
    Example: ‎dungi (to employ) + ‎-iton → ‎dungiton (former employee)
    La dungito donos al ni helpon.
    The former employee will give us help.
  2. (adjectival participle) -ita or -itan Characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a past relative to the verb. (passive past participle)
    Example: ‎dungi (to employ) + ‎-itan → ‎dungitan (employed)
    Iu ajn povus esti dungitan de kafejo.Any one might be formerly employed by a cafe.
  3. (adverbial participle) -ite In a way characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a past relative to the verb. (passive past adverbial participle)
    dungi (to employ)dungite (in the way of a former employee)
    Mi estis farmiston dungite de restoracioI was a farmer in the way of a former restaurant employee.

Usage notesEdit

Even if the word takes the nominative form (e.g. dungito), the word forms a substantive as-if an accusative for the participle's root.
According to rule 6 in Fundamento de Esperanto, all passive participles modify either some form of esti (to be) or an associated noun.