The i vowel of past-tense -is plus the t of the Latin/Romance/German passive perfect participle.
- (patient substantive) -ito or -iton Accusative do'ee of an action, in a past relative to the verb.
- (adjectival participle) -ita or -itan Characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a past relative to the verb. (passive past participle)
- (adverbial participle) -ite In a way characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a past relative to the verb. (passive past adverbial participle)
Even if the word takes the nominative form (e.g. dungito), the word forms a substantive as-if an accusative for the participle's root.
According to rule 6 in Fundamento de Esperanto, all passive participles modify either some form of esti (to be) or an associated noun.