Appendix:Burmese induced creaky tone

Induced creaky tone (ICT) in Burmese is the alteration of a low tone (sometimes a high tone) to the creaky tone in certain morphosyntactic environments.

It can be found on:

The object marker ကို (kui) may be omitted, but ICT remains to indicate the object, e.g. သူ့ မေးလိုက်ပါ (su. me:luikpa, Ask him!).

Induced creaky tone is generally spelled by adding the creaky tone diacritic ◌့ to the normal spelling of the word, even in cases where creaky tone is normally spelled with a different vowel diacritic. For example, /lṵ/ is normally spelled လု (lu.), but the ICT of လူ (lu) is spelled လူ့ (lu.). However, when creaky tone replaces a high tone that is spelled with , then simply replaces , e.g. ခင်ဗျား (hkangbya:) becomes ခင်ဗျာ့ (hkangbya.) under ICT. The ICT of ◌ယ် /ɛ̀/ is spelled with ဲ့.

Induced creaky tone forms can be indicated with the template {{my-ICT of}} and are collected in Category:Burmese induced creaky tone forms.


  • Okell, John (1969). A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, pp. 18–21.
  • Wheatley, Julian K. (1987). “Burmese”, in The World’s Major Languages, ed. Bernard Comrie, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, pp. 848–49.