This Proto-Austronesian entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Austronesian edit

Proto-Austronesian cardinal numbers
 <  8 9 10  > 
    Cardinal : *Siwa

Etymology edit

Any etymology beyond this reconstructed form is controversial. Sagart (2004) considers it to have arisen after Proto-Austronesian proper, rather than from a compound from *ɣatep (five) +‎ *Səpat (four), and relates it to Kulon-Pazeh xasebisupat (literally five and four), but Winter (2010) rejects this on phonological and historical grounds.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit


  1. nine

Descendants edit

  • Proto-Malayo-Polynesian: *siwa
    • Balinese: siə
    • Fijian: ciwa
    • Malagasy: sivy
    • Proto-Polynesian: *hiwa (see there for further descendants)
    • Rotuman: siva
    • Tetum: sia

References edit

  • Sagart, Laurent. 2004. "The higher phylogeny of Austronesian and the position of Tai-Kadai." Oceanic Linguistics 43, 2:411–444.
  • Winter, Bodo. 2010. "A note on the higher phylogeny of Austronesian." Oceanic Linguistics 49, 1:282–287.