This Proto-Austronesian entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Austronesian edit

Proto-Austronesian cardinal numbers
 <  7 8 9  > 
    Cardinal : *walu

Etymology edit

Any etymology beyond this reconstructed form is controversial. Sagart (2004) considers it to have arisen after Proto-Austronesian proper, rather than from a compound from *ɣatep (five) +‎ *təlu (three), and relates it to Kulon-Pazeh xasebatulu (literally five and three), but Winter (2010) rejects this on phonological and historical grounds.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit


  1. eight

Descendants edit

  • East Formosan:
    • Kavalan: uwalu
  • Proto-Malayo-Polynesian: *walu
    • East Barito:
    • Proto-Philippine:
    • Sama-Bajaw:
      • West Coast Bajau: wau'
    • Celebic:
    • Proto-Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:
      • Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:
        • Proto-Oceanic:
          • Central-Eastern Oceanic:
            • Fijian: walu
            • Proto-Polynesian: *walu (see there for further descendants)
            • Rotuman: vạlu
      • Timor-Babar:
      • Javanese: ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ (wolu)
    • Kaili-Pamona:
    • Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan:

References edit

  • Sagart, Laurent. 2004. "The higher phylogeny of Austronesian and the position of Tai-Kadai." Oceanic Linguistics 43, 2:411–444.
  • Winter, Bodo. 2010. "A note on the higher phylogeny of Austronesian." Oceanic Linguistics 49, 1:282–287.