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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative formsEdit


Uncertain; possibly from Proto-Indo-European *gʷew(H)- (to gain), whence Latvian gaut (to catch, gain), gūvejs (winner), Lithuanian gáuti (to gain, obtain), or perhaps from *bʰewd- (to beat)[1].


*boudi n[1][2][3]

  1. profit, gain
  2. victory


Neuter i-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *bowdi *bowdī *bowdyā
vocative *bowdi *bowdī *bowdyā
accusative *bowdi *bowdī *bowdyā
genitive *bowdois *bowdois *bowdyom
dative *bowdē *bowdibom *bowdibos
instrumental *bowdī *bowdibim *bowdibis

Derived termsEdit


  • Brythonic: bʉd m
  • Old Irish: búaid f, boid
  • Gaulish: *boudi[4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*bowdi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 72
  2. ^ Koch, John (2004), “*boudi-”, in English–Proto-Celtic Word-list with attested comparanda, University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  3. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S. (2017–2018), “Chapter XI: Celtic”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The lexicon of Celtic, page 1257
  4. 4.0 4.1 Delamarre, Xavier (2003) Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, →ISBN, page boudi- of 83-84