This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Possibly a substantivised form of *ǵr̥h₂-nós (matured, grown old) (compare Sanskrit जीर्ण (jīrṇá, old, worn out)), itself a verbal adjective derived from *ǵerh₂- (to grow old, to mature) +‎ *-nóm.


*ǵr̥h₂nóm n[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

  1. grain


nominative *ǵr̥h₂nóm
genitive *ǵr̥h₂nósyo
singular dual plural
nominative *ǵr̥h₂nóm *ǵr̥h₂nóy(h₁) *ǵr̥h₂néh₂
vocative *ǵr̥h₂nóm *ǵr̥h₂nóy(h₁) *ǵr̥h₂néh₂
accusative *ǵr̥h₂nóm *ǵr̥h₂nóy(h₁) *ǵr̥h₂néh₂
genitive *ǵr̥h₂nósyo *? *ǵr̥h₂nóHom
ablative *ǵr̥h₂néad *? *ǵr̥h₂nómos
dative *ǵr̥h₂nóey *? *ǵr̥h₂nómos
locative *ǵr̥h₂néy, *ǵr̥h₂nóy *? *ǵr̥h₂nóysu
instrumental *ǵr̥h₂nóh₁ *? *ǵr̥h₂nṓys


  • Proto-Albanian: *grunā (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *źírˀna (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *grānom (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *kurną (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *grānom (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 82: “*ǵr̥h₂nóm”
  2. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, first edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 311: “*g̑r̥h₂no-”
  3. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*ĝrhₐnóm”, in The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 163
  4. ^ Jasanoff, Jay (2017) The Prehistory of the Balto-Slavic Accent (Brill's Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics; 17), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 80: “*ǵr̥h₂-no-”
  5. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, page 36: “*ǵrHno-”
  6. ^ Dybo, Vladimir A. (1974) Афганское ударение и его значение для индоевропейской и балто-славянской акцентологии. I. Именная акцентуация [Pashto accent and its significance for Indo-European and Balto-Slavic accentology. I. Nominal accentuation] (Balto-Slavic studies)‎[2] (in Russian), Moscow: Science, USSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House, page 93: “*g̑r̥̄nó-”
  7. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[3], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 71: “*g̑r̥̄nom”
  8. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “grānum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 271: “*ǵrh₂-no”
  9. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*zь̀rno”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 553: “PIE *ǵrh₂-no-”
  10. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “žirnis”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 520: “PIE *ǵrh₂-no-”