This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructionsEdit



  1. to cry hoarsely
  2. crane

Usage notesEdit

The widespread use of this root to mean "crane" is probably derived from its meaning "to cry hoarsely", based on the crane's characteristic cry. The crane lives all over Eurasia, and was obviously known by Proto-Indo-Europeans. The word, however, does not exist in Indo-Iranian, which may be due to a lot of names for animals and birds being borrowed from aboriginal languages of Asia in that branch.[3]

Derived termsEdit

  • Unsorted formations:
    • Albanian:
      • Albanian: hungëroj
      • Albanian: ngurónj
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Proto-Slavic: *grati (to play music)
        • Proto-Slavic: *grakъ (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *krakōną (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic:
      • Old Norse: kráka (see there for further descendants)
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *krēaną (see there for further descendants)
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *krēǭ (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *gárǰati
    • >? Proto-Indo-Iranian: [Term?]


  1. ^ Kölligan, Daniel (2017–2018), “Chapter XX: Proto-Indo-European”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The lexicon of Proto-Indo-European, page 2272: “*gerH-”
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “grūs, -uis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 274
  3. ^ Proto-Indo-European Roots Database
  4. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “grē or greay”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 228