This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

From *h₃ekʷ- (to see) +‎ *-s.

Noun edit

*h₃ókʷs ?[1]

  1. eye

Inflection edit

Athematic, acrostatic
singular collective
nominative *h₃ókʷs *h₃ékʷsōs
genitive *h₃ékʷs *h₃kʷsés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *h₃ókʷs *h₃ókʷsih₁ *h₃ékʷsōs
vocative *h₃ókʷs *h₃ókʷsih₁ *h₃ékʷsōs
accusative *h₃ókʷs *h₃ókʷsih₁ *h₃ékʷsōs
genitive *h₃ékʷs *? *h₃kʷsés
ablative *h₃ékʷs *? *h₃kʷsés
dative *h₃ékʷey *? *h₃kʷséy
locative *h₃ékʷ, *h₃ékʷi *? *h₃ékʷs, *h₃ékʷsi
instrumental *h₃ékʷh₁ *? *h₃kʷséh₁

No plural form existed, only a dual form, ending in *-ih₁:

Descendants edit

  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ակն (akn, eye)
    • ? Old Armenian: յաւն (yawn, eyebrow)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *ak-
    • Latgalian: acs
    • Latvian: acs
    • Lithuanian: akìs
    • Old Prussian: ackis (nom. pl.)
    • Samogitian: akis
    • Proto-Slavic: *ȍko (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *augô (with probable contamination from *auzô) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *ókʷs
    • Ancient Greek: ὄψ (óps), ὤψ (ṓps, eye, face)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hákš
  • Proto-Tocharian: *ëk
    • Tocharian A: ak
    • Tocharian B: ek
From dual *h₃ókʷih₁
  • Proto-Albanian: *asī
    • Albanian: sy
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: աչք (ačʿkʿ, both eyes)
  • Proto-Hellenic:
    • Ancient Greek: ὄσσε du (ósse, eyes)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hákši (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN