This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Root edit


  1. to drive, particularly of animals

Descendants edit

  • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
    • Proto-Indo-Aryan:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Baltic:
      • Lithuanian: kelti (to drive animals)
  • Proto-Germanic: *haldaną (to hold, keep)[1] (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *kelomai < *kel-etor
  • Proto-Hellenic: *keľľō < *kel-yeti
  • Proto-Italic:
    • Latin: celer (swift, fast)
  • Proto-Tocharian:[2]

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ringe, Donald, Taylor, Ann (2014) The Development of Old English (A Linguistic History of English; 2), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 184:PWGmc *haldan
  2. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) “käl-”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 181