This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Possibly related to Proto-Uralic *wete, the source of Finnish vesi and Hungarian víz. The nature of the relationship is unclear and controversial; the word may have been borrowed from Proto-Indo-European into Proto-Uralic, or the reverse. A minority of linguists suggests a common origin from an even earlier proto-language, Indo-Uralic, but this is not generally accepted.

In Proto-Indo-European, the active elemental *wed- (water) was contrasted with the passive *h₂ep- (body of water), similar to the opposition of the active "fire" *h₁n̥gʷnis with the passive *péh₂wr̥.



  1. water

Derived termsEdit

  • *wód-r̥ ~ *wéd-n̥-s (water)
  • *wéd-os ~ *wéd-es-os (water)
    • Old Armenian: գետ (get, river)
  • *wēd-o-s (wet)
  • *wed-ro-m
  • *ud-ri-s
  • *ud-ró-s (of water, aquatic)
  • *u-né-d-ti ~ *u-n-d-énti (nasal-infix present)
  • *wod-sḱé-ti (o-grade sḱe-present)
    • Proto-Germanic: *waskaną (to wash) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:

Further readingEdit

  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, § 223.5