This Proto-Ryukyuan entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Ryukyuan edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Japonic *nə (genitive case marker).

Particle edit


  1. nominative and genitive case marker

Usage notes edit

Ryukyuan languages use a hierarchy to determine which of its nominative and genitive markers, *ga and *no, to use. This hierarchy has two layers, consisting of higher and lower layers.[1]

  • The higher nominative and genitive marker is *ga, used primarily by pronouns referring to humans.
  • The lower nominative and genitive marker is *no, used by any nominals that do not use *ga.

This hierarchy is subject to much variation in the daughter languages. In Northern Amami-Ōshima, genitive *ga is only used with demonstrative pronouns, while personal pronouns, names of humans, and kinship terms do not take any genitive marker, while Yaeyama lost its reflex of *ga altogether.

Descendants edit

  • Northern Ryukyuan: (/no/) (Haytong Ceykwukki, 1501)
    • Kikai: (nu)
    • Kunigami: (nu)
    • Northern Amami-Oshima: (nu)
    • Okinawan: (nu)
    • Oki-No-Erabu: (nu)
    • Southern Amami-Oshima: (nu)
    • Toku-No-Shima: (nu)
    • Yoron: (nu)
  • Southern Ryukyuan:
    • Miyako: (nu)
    • Yaeyama: (nu)
    • Yonaguni: (nu)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2018) “Ryukyuan and the reconstruction of proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan”, in Handbook of Japanese historical linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton.