This Proto-Ryukyuan entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
This section or reconstruction page lacks references or sources. Please help verify this information by adding appropriate citations. You can also discuss it at the Tea Room.

Proto-Ryukyuan edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Japonic *-nka (genitive marker (in pronouns)).

Particle edit


  1. nominative and genitive case marker

Usage notes edit

Ryukyuan languages use a hierarchy to determine which of its nominative and genitive markers, *ga and *no, to use. This hierarchy has two layers, consisting of higher and lower layers.[1]

  • The higher nominative and genitive marker is *ga, used primarily by pronouns referring to humans.
  • The lower nominative and genitive marker is *no, used by any nominals that do not use *ga.

This hierarchy is subject to much variation in the daughter languages. In Northern Amami-Ōshima, genitive *ga is only used with demonstrative pronouns, while personal pronouns, names of humans, and kinship terms do not take any genitive marker, while Yaeyama lost its reflex of *ga altogether.

Descendants edit

  • Northern Ryukyuan:
    • Kikai: (ga)
    • Kunigami: (ga)
    • Northern Amami-Oshima: (ga)
    • Okinawan: (ga)
    • Oki-No-Erabu: (ga)
    • Southern Amami-Oshima: (ga)
    • Toku-No-Shima: (ga)
    • Yoron: (ga)
  • Southern Ryukyuan

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2018) “Ryukyuan and the reconstruction of proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan”, in Handbook of Japanese historical linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton.