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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai NU.png
U+306C, ぬ
HIRAGANA LETTER NU

[U+306B]
Hiragana
[U+306D]

Contents

JapaneseEdit

Stroke order
 

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

SyllableEdit

(romaji nu)

  1. The hiragana syllable (nu). Its equivalent in katakana is (nu). It is the twenty-third syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (na-gyō u-dan, row na, section u).
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Originally the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) of Classical Japanese negative particle . In modern Japanese, the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal form) (lemma, originally ) assimilated to .

SuffixEdit

(rōmaji -nu)

  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb) the negative: indicates negation of the action, ending without starting or occurring: not
     (かぜ) ()
    kaze ga tatanu
    the wind does not rise / does not pick up

ConjugationEdit

  • For classical conjugation, see .

SynonymsEdit

(negative verb ending):

  • (very casual, also archaic, also dialectal) (n)
  • (casual) ない (nai)
  • (formal) ません (masen)
  • (written formal) (zu)
  • (Kansai) へん (hen)

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Japanese.[1][2][3]

Many monolingual Japanese dictionaries[1][2][3] derive this as a contraction of Old Japanese 往ぬ (inu, to go away; to pass (such as time); to pass away, to die); however, the meaning does not seem to make sense in the context of the verb ending -nu.

More recent work by Bjarke Frellesvig and others suggests that -nu may have originated from an ancient copular or stative verb.

SuffixEdit

(rōmaji -nu)

  1. (after the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb) the perfective: indicates completion of the action, ending after starting or occurring: has done, has happened
     (かぜ) ()
    kaze ga tachinu
    the wind has risen / has picked up

ConjugationEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • In Old Japanese and continuing in classical and later Japanese, the ending -nu and the ending -ta have both been used to mark the completion of an action. -nu was used mainly for verbs that indicated intransitive, naturally occurring, or unintentional actions, while -ta was used mainly for verbs that indicated transitive or intentional actions.
  • In classical Japanese, perfective is different from negative () as shown in the following table:
Negative () Perfective
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形) ぬる
  • In modern Japanese, -nu is rarely encountered, and it often imparts a formal or archaic sense.

SynonymsEdit

(perfective verb ending):

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

KunigamiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with Japanese (no).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(romaji nu)

  1. possessive particle

MiyakoEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with Japanese (no).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(romaji nu)

  1. possessive particle

OkinawanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with Japanese (no).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(romaji nu)

  1. possessive particle

YaeyamaEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with Japanese (no).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(romaji nu)

  1. possessive particle

YonaguniEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with Japanese (no).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(romaji nu)

  1. possessive particle