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This Proto-Japonic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





  1. nominative and genitive case marker

Usage notesEdit

Japonic had two particles that as functioned as both nominative and genitive case markers, *nə and *-nka. According to Pellard (2018), reflexes of *-nka are typically used after pronouns in the daughter languages and reflexes of *nə are used elsewhere.[1] See the Proto-Ryukyuan entries for more specifics.


  • Old Japanese: (no2)
    • Japanese: (no, (genitive case marker))
  • Ryukyuan: *no
    • Northern Ryukyuan: (no) (Haytong Ceykwukki, 1501)
      • Kikai: (nu)
      • Kunigami: (nu)
      • Northern Amami-Oshima: (nu)
      • Okinawan: (nu)
      • Oki-No-Erabu: (nu)
      • Southern Amami-Oshima: (nu)
      • Toku-No-Shima: (nu)
      • Yoron: (nu)
    • Southern Ryukyuan:
      • Miyako: (nu)
      • Yaeyama: (nu)
      • Yonaguni: (nu)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2018), “Ryukyuan and the reconstruction of proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan”, in Handbook of Japanese historical linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton.