This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Compound masculine suffix from *-ьnъ +‎ *-ikъ. Parallel to *-ьnica f for derivatives in feminine gender.


*-ьnikъ m

  1. From base concept nouns, forms agent nouns who execute or embark in the referred concept
    *pǫtь (path)*pǫtьnikъ (traveler, passenger)
    *kry (blood)*krъvьnikъ (hangman, avenger)
    *mętežь (scuffle, mutiny)*mętežьnikъ (rioter)
    *orbota (work)*orbotьnikъ (worker)
    *směхъ (laughter)*směšьnikъ (funnyman, clown)
    *zakonъ (law)*zakonьnikъ (law-maker, lawyer, canon)
  2. From base object nouns, forms derivative object nouns
    *dьrvo (tree)*dьrvьnikъ (block, log)
    *peťь (oven, cook)*peťьnikъ (furnace)
    *sъborъ (aggregate, sum)*sъborьnikъ (collection, anthology)
  3. From concept nouns in *-ostь, forms carrier nouns of the specified concept
    *xubostь (handsomeness)*xubostьnikъ (handsome man)
    *pakostь (mischief, vicissitude)*pakostьnikъ (varmint, trickster)
  4. From prepositions, forms subject nouns exhibiting the specified proposition
    *protivъ (against)*protivьnikъ (opponent)
    *nadъ (over, upon)*nadьnikъ (bonus)
    Pre-Slavic *porzdъ (over there, forwards with skipping one)*porzdьnikъ (holiday)


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  • Duridinov et al. (1991) "-ьникъ" in Граматика на старобългарския език (in Bulgarian), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, page 183
  • I. Erofeyeva (2010): "Личные дериваты с суффиксом -(ьн)икъ в ментально-культурном пространстве языка Русских летописей" (in Russian), Kazan State University