Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/-ikъ

This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-eikas, from Proto-Indo-European *-eykos. Cognate with Latvian -ieks (< -eikas). The *-i in *-ikъ thus reflects the Proto-Indo-European diphthong *ey, which explains the lack of the third palatalization. Lithuanian -ykas reflects earlier -inīkas, and is not a cognate. Probably not related to Sanskrit -ईक (-īká) and Latin -icō.

Suffix edit

*-ikъ m

  1. Denominal, forming diminutives.
    *nožь (knife)*nožikъ (a small knife)
    *větrъ (wind)*větrikъ (breeze)
    *listъ (leaf)*listikъ (a small leaf)
    *bobъ (broad bean)*bobikъ ((a small) broad bean)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of a property.
    *zoltъ (golden)*zoltikъ (something golden)
    *porzdьnъ (empty)*porzdьnikъ (feast, holiday, festival)
    *moldъ (young)*moldikъ (something or somebody young)
    *malъ (small)*malikъ (something or somebody small)

Declension edit

Usage notes edit

The diminutive function is productive in North Slavic. In South Slavic languages diminutive formations only exist in relics, mostly in Slovene.

Derived terms edit

  • *-nikъ (appended to the past participle of verbs in *-nъ)
  • *-ьnikъ (with *-ьn- element abstracted away from denominal derivations on *-ьnъ)

Related terms edit

  • *-ica (feminine counterpart)

Descendants edit

  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -икъ (-ikŭ)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Old Cyrillic script: -икъ (-ikŭ)
      Glagolitic script: -ⰹⰽⱏ (-ikŭ)
    • Bulgarian: -ик (-ik)
    • Macedonian: -ик (-ik)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic script: -ик
      Latin script: -ik
    • Slovene: -ik
  • West Slavic:

References edit

  • Šekli, Matej (2012) “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, number 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974), “*-ikъ”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 1 (a – bьzděti), Wrocław: Ossolineum, page 90
  • J. Halla-aho (2006): "Nouns in */-k-o-/ " in Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology, University of Helsenki, p. 70