This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Sometimes compared with Proto-Indo-European *(s)kʷálos.



  1. fish


  • Proto-Samoyedic: *kålä (see there for further descendants)
  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: hal
    • Khanty:
    • Mansi:
      • Northern, Eastern: хул (hul)
      • Western: [script needed] (kul)
      • Southern: [script needed] (kōl)
  • Mari:
  • Proto-Mordvinic:
  • Proto-Samic: *kuolē (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Finnic: *kala (see there for further descendants)


  • Häkkinen, Kaisa (2013). Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja. Helsinki: Sanoma Pro OY. →ISBN.
  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Sammallahti, Pekka (1988), “Historical Phonology of the Uralic Languages”, in Denis, Sinor, editor, The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, Leiden: E. J. Brill, →ISBN, pages 478-554

Further readingEdit

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[1], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
  • Entry #228 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungary.