Old IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit


From Proto-Celtic *uɸo-gar-os, from *uɸo- (under, sub-) and the zero grade of Proto-Indo-European *ǵeh₂r- (to call) (compare gairid (to call) and Welsh gair (word)).



fogur m (genitive foguir or fogair or fogir, nominative plural foguir or fogair or fogir)

  1. a sound
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 12c22
      Ro·cluinethar cách in fogur et níɔ·fitir cid as·beir.
      Everyone hears the sound and doesn't know what he says.


Masculine o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative fogur, fogor, fugur fogurL, fogor, fugur foguirL, fogair, fogir
Vocative foguir, fogair, fogir fogurL, fogor, fugur fogru?H
Accusative fogurN, fogor, fugur fogurL, fogor, fugur fogru?H
Genitive foguirL, fogair, fogir fogur, fogor, fugur fogurN, fogor, fugur
Dative fogurL, fogor, fugur fograib? fograib?
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Derived termsEdit


  • Irish: foghar
  • Manx: foayr
  • Scottish Gaelic: foghar


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
fogur ḟogur fogur
pronounced with /v(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit