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BretonEdit

EtymologyEdit

Infinitive from kavout (to find), all other forms from the verb bezañ (to be). Cognate with Cornish kavos and y'm beus.

VerbEdit

kaout

  1. (auxiliary, transitive) to have
  2. (transitive) to get

ConjugationEdit

Personal forms
Indicative Conditional Imperative
Present Imperfect Preterite Future Present (habitual) Imperfect (habitual) Present Imperfect
1s am eus* am boa* am boe* am bo* am bez* am beze* am befe* am bije* am bezet*
2s ac'h eus, az peus* az poa* az poe* az po* az pez* az peze* az pefe* az pije* az pez*
3s (m) en deus en doa, devoa en doe, devoe en devo en devez en deveze en defe en dije en devezet
3s (f) he deus he doa, devoa he doe, devoe he devo he devez he deveze he defe he dije he devezet
1p hon eus hor boa hor boe hor bo hor bez hor beze hor befe hor bije hor bezet
2p hoc'h eus, ho peus ho poa ho poe ho po ho pez ho peze ho pefe ho pije ho pezet, ho pet
3p o deus o doa, devoa o doe, devoe o devo o devez o deveze o defe o dije o devezet
0 ez eus e oa e voe e vo e vez e veze e vefe e vije -
Impersonal forms Mutated forms
Infinitive: kaout, endevout, en devout
Present participle: o kaout, oc'h endevout
Past participle: bet (auxiliary verb: kaout)
Soft mutation after a: -
Mixed mutation after e: -
Mixed mutation after o: n'am eus

NotesEdit

  • The form am in the first person of this verb can also appear as em. Middle Breton had 'm beus. Similarly ac'h and az of the second person may become ec'h and ez though this is rare. Middle Breton had only 'h eus for the present indicative and 'z peus for all other tenses.
  • In the indicative present, the form az peus is a back-formation from the other tenses. As this verb is based on bezañ, the forms with az and initial p- in the second person singular all come from an initial b- of the conjugation of bezañ. But in the indicative present of bezañ in the second person, there is no initial b-, thus the normal form for kaout based on bezañ in the indicative present shows this same lack of initial consonant, thus eus with a particle ac'h. Nowadays the ac'h eus is more literary though very common, and az peus is becoming more and more common.
  • The infinitive endevout or en devout is used in the dialects of Vannes, where the form of the present form is either em bout, ez pout, en/he d(ev)out, hor bout, ho pout, o d(ev)out or em-es, 't-es, en/hé-des, on-es, ho-es/ho-pes, o-des.

InflectionEdit