- The scholarly process whereby manuscripts intended to be published in an academic journal are reviewed by independent researchers (referees) to evaluate the contribution, i.e. the importance, novelty and accuracy of the manuscript's contents.
- 2006, National Institute for Literacy, What is Scientifically Based Research?, page 2:
- Peer review [...] happens in two ways. In one method, a paper submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal is examined by other scientists in the field before an editor (usually an expert in the field) passes judgment on it. The second method is review by an independent panel of experts who, using rigorous criteria, determine whether the findings of the paper are credible.
- To review before publication, as by an authority or authorities in the pertinent field of study, of the written form of an idea, hypothesis, theory, and/or written discussion of such.
- Three drafts of his report were peer reviewed before it was accepted for publication.