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 pulkstenis on Latvian Wikipedia
Sienas pulkstenis

Alternative formsEdit


There are various theories about the origin of this word, originally meaning “church bell.” The most likely to be true derives it from an unattested verb *pulsēt (to produce sound) (compare archaic pulstens, dialectal pulstenis (bell), pulkstiens (bell sound, toll)) > *pulksēt with an epenthetic k and the nominalizing suffix -enis. Other suggestions include deriving pulkstenis from pulks (regiment, military unit) and stenēt (to groan, to make noise) (i.e., the regiment's noisy one); from borrowed terms, Middle Low German puls (hit, blow, touch) and stēn (stone); from an old verb pult meaning “to fall” (since that which strikes a bell “falls” on it); from a compound of puls- and sitiens, sitenis “blow”, with an intrusive k. The word was already mentioned in a 1585 catechism (as stundu pulksten(is), “hour bell,” i.e., “clock”)[1]


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pulkstenis m (2nd declension)

  1. clock, watch (instrument to measure time)
    mehāniskais, elektroniskais pulkstenismechanical, electronic clock
    sudraba, zelta pulkstenissilver, golden watch
    pulkstenis tikšķthe clock is ticking
    pulksteņa rādītājithe hands of a clock
    pulksteņa svārstsclock pendulum
    labot pulkstenito fix the clock
    rokas pulksteniswrist (lit. arm) watch
    kabatas pulkstenispocket watch
    galda, sienas, torņa pulkstenistable, wall, tower clock
    modinātāja pulkstenis, modinātājpulkstenisalarm clock
    saules pulkstenissun clock
    smilšu pulkstenishourglass (lit. sand clock)
    biloģiskais pulkstenisbiological clock
    pulkstenis ir ātrs, iet par ātruthe clock is fast
    pulkstenis iet priekšā, ir priekšāthe clock is fast
    pulkstenis ir vēls, iet par lēnuthe clock is late
  2. the time
    pulkstenis ir četriit is four o'clock
    pulkstenis vēl nebija pusseptiņiit wasn't half past six yet
    cik ir pulkstenis?what time is it?



Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pulkstenis”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN