pulkstenis on Latvian Wikipedia
Sienas pulkstenis

Alternative formsEdit


There are various theories about the origin of this word, originally meaning “church bell.” The most likely to be true derives it from an unattested verb *pulsēt (to produce sound) (compare archaic pulstens, dialectal pulstenis (bell), pulkstiens (bell sound, toll)) > *pulksēt with an epenthetic k and the nominalizing suffix -enis. Other suggestions include deriving pulkstenis from pulks (regiment, military unit) and stenēt (to groan, to make noise) (i.e., the regiment's noisy one); from borrowed terms, Middle Low German puls (hit, blow, touch) and stēn (stone); from an old verb pult meaning “to fall” (since that which strikes a bell “falls” on it); from a compound of puls- and sitiens, sitenis “blow”, with an intrusive k. The word was already mentioned in a 1585 catechism (as stundu pulksten(is), “hour bell,” i.e., “clock”)[1]


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pulkstenis m (2nd declension)

  1. clock, watch (instrument to mesure time)
    mehāniskais, elektroniskais pulkstenis‎ ― mechanical, electronic clock
    sudraba, zelta pulkstenis‎ ― silver, golden watch
    pulkstenis tikšķ‎ ― the clock is ticking
    pulksteņa rādītāji‎ ― the hands of a clock
    pulksteņa svārsts‎ ― clock pendulum
    labot pulksteni‎ ― to fix the clock
    rokas pulkstenis‎ ― wrist (lit. arm) watch
    kabatas pulkstenis‎ ― pocket watch
    galda, sienas, torņa pulkstenis‎ ― table, wall, tower clock
    modinātāja pulkstenis, modinātājpulkstenis‎ ― alarm clock
    saules pulkstenis‎ ― sun clock
    smilšu pulkstenis‎ ― hourglass (lit. sand clock)
    biloģiskais pulkstenis‎ ― biological clock
    pulkstenis ir ātrs, iet par ātru‎ ― the clock is fast
    pulkstenis iet priekšā, ir priekšā‎ ― the clock is fast
    pulkstenis ir vēls, iet par lēnu‎ ― the clock is late
  2. the time
    pulkstenis ir četri‎ ― it is four o'clock
    pulkstenis vēl nebija pusseptiņi‎ ― it wasn't half past six yet
    cik ir pulkstenis?‎ ― what time is it?



Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pulkstenis”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7