Last modified on 21 May 2014, at 00:01


Old Church SlavonicEdit


From Proto-Slavic *byti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bʔutei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuh₂- (see Proto-Indo-European *bʰew-). Baltic cognates include Lithuanian būti and Latvian būt. Other Indo-European cognates include Latin fuī (I was), Ancient Greek φύω (phúō), Sanskrit भवति (bhavati, to become), and Persian بودن (budan, to be).

Suppletive present forms are also inherited; єсмь (esmĭ), from Proto-Slavic *jesmь, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es-. Cognates include Old English wesan (eom, eart, is), Old Norse em, est, es, Gothic 𐌹𐌼 (im), 𐌹𐍃 (is), 𐌹𐍃𐍄 (ist), Avestan ahmi [script?] (Persian بودن (budan) and است (ast)), Greek εἰμί, εἶ (), ἐστί, Latin esse (sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt), (from which French être, Italian essere, Spanish ser), Lithuanian esu, Albanian jam.


бꙑти (byti)

  1. to be


present imperfective aorist future imperative perfective aorist
1st person sg єсмь бѣхъ бѫдѫ бꙑхъ
2nd person sg єси бѣ бѫдєши бѫди бꙑстъ (бꙑ)
3rd person sg єстъ бѣашє бѣ бѫдєтъ бѫди бꙑстъ (бꙑ)
1st person dual єсвѣ бѣховѣ бѫдєвѣ бѫдѣвѣ бꙑховѣ
2nd person dual єста бѣста бѫдєта бѫдѣта бꙑста
3rd person dual єстє бѣашєтє бѣстє бѫдєтє бѫдѣтє бꙑстє
1st person pl єсмъ бѣхомъ бѫдємъ бѫдѣмъ бꙑхомъ
2nd person pl єстє бѣстє бѫдєтє бѫдѣтє бꙑстє
3rd person pl сѫтъ бѣахѫ бѣшѧ бѫдѫтъ бѫдѫ бꙑшѧ


masculine sg neuter sg feminine sg
present active participle сꙑ сꙑ сѫшти
resultative participle бꙑлъ бꙑло бꙑла
past active participle бꙑвъ бꙑвъ бꙑвъши
substantive бꙑтьє

нє бꙑти (negative conjugation)

singular dual plural
1st person нѣсмь нѣсвѣ нѣсмъ
2nd person нѣси нѣста нѣстє
3rd person нѣстъ нѣстє нє сѫтъ