Hindi edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Sanskrit शरद् (śarád), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ćarHáts. Doublet of साल (sāl), a borrowing from Persian.

Noun edit

शरद् (śaradf (Urdu spelling شرد)

  1. autumn, fall (specifically, the two months succeeding the summer monsoons)
    आनेवाला शरद् ऋतु बहुत ठंडा होगा।
    ānevālā śarad ŕtu bahut ṭhaṇḍā hogā.
    The coming autumn season will be very cold.

Declension edit

Synonyms edit

References edit

  • Bahri, Hardev (1989), “शरद्”, in Siksarthi Hindi-Angrejhi Sabdakosa [Learners' Hindi-English Dictionary], Delhi: Rajpal & Sons.
  • Platts, John T. (1884), “शरद्”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & Co.

Sanskrit edit

Alternative forms edit

Alternative scripts edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Indo-Aryan *śarHáts ~ *śarHdás, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ćarHád- (autumn, year), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₁- (to warm up, be hot). Cognate with Avestan 𐬯𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬜𐬀 (sarəδa, year), Old Persian 𐎰𐎼𐎭 (θ-r-d /⁠θrda⁠/, year) (whence Persian سال (sâl, year)), as well as perhaps Latin caleō (to be warm) and Latvian silts (warm).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

शरद् (śarád) stemf

  1. autumn, autumnal season comprising the two months अश्विन् (aśvin) and कार्त्तिक (kārttika)
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 10.161.4:
      शतं जीव शरदो वर्धमानः शतं हेमन्ताञ्छतमु वसन्तान्।
      śataṃ jīva śarado vardhamānaḥ śataṃ hemantāñchatamu vasantān.
      Live, waxing in thy strength, a hundred autumns, live through a hundred springs, a hundred winters.
  2. a year
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 6.24.7:
      अयं द्योतयदद्युतो व्यक्तून्दोषा वस्तोः शरद इन्दुरिन्द्र ।
      इमं केतुमदधुर्नू चिदह्नां शुचिजन्मन उषसश्चकार ॥
      ayaṃ dyotayadadyuto vyaktūndoṣā vastoḥ śarada indurindra .
      imaṃ ketumadadhurnū cidahnāṃ śucijanmana uṣasaścakāra .
      This Indu lighted darksome nights, O Indra, throughout the years, at morning and at evening.
      Him have they stablished as the days' bright ensign. He made the Mornings to be born in splendour.

Descendants edit

See also edit

Seasons in Sanskrit · ऋतवः (ṛtavaḥ) (layout · text) · category
कुसुमाकर (kusumākara, spring) ग्रीष्म (grīṣma, summer) शरद् (śarad, autumn) हिम (hima, winter)

References edit

  • Apte, Macdonell (2022), “शरद्”, in Digital Dictionaries of South India [Combined Sanskrit Dictionaries]
  • Monier Williams (1899), “शरद्”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, →OCLC, page 1057.
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1996) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[1] (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 616
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1976) Kurzgefasstes Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen [A Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 304