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These are the rules concerning transliteration in Hindi entries.

Wiktionary's system for the transliteration of Devanagari for Hindi corresponds mostly to the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) system. The main changes from the IAST standard are meant to optimise the system for Hindi, rather than Sanskrit, and are mostly present in the romanisation of nasal vowels.

Characters used in Sanskrit but not Hindi are not included in this guide.


ConsonantsEdit

Wiktionary standard transliteration for Hindi
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
velar deva.
trans. k kh g gh h
IPA [k] [kʰ] [g] [gʱ] [ŋ] [h]/[ɦ]
palatal deva.
trans. c ch j jh ñ y ś
IPA [tʃ] [tʃʰ] [dʒ] [dʒʱ] [ɲ] [j] [ʃ]
retroflex deva.
trans. ṭh ḍh r
IPA [ʈ] [ʈʰ] [ɖ] [ɖʱ] [ɳ] [r] [ʃ]
dental deva.
trans. t th d dh n l s
IPA [t̪] [t̪ʰ] [d̪] [d̪ʱ] [n] [l] [s]
labial deva.
trans. p ph b bh m v
IPA [p] [pʰ] [b] [bʱ] [m] [ʋ]/[v]/[w]

VowelsEdit

1 2 3 4 5 6
short independent
diacritic inherent ि
trans. a i u ŕ e o
IPA [ə] [ɪ] [ʊ] [rɪ] [eː] [oː]
long independent
diacritic
trans. ā ī ū ai au
IPA [ɑː] [iː] [uː] [ɛː] [ɔː]

NasalisationEdit

The nasal diacritics () (अनुस्वार, anusvar) and (̃) (चन्द्रबिन्दु, candrabindu) are "transliterated" according to their context in a word. Basically, the consonant (or lack thereof) immediately following the nasal vowel determines exactly how the transliteration will occur.

  1. First, a tilde diacritic is added to the nasalized vowel
    ã, ā̃, ẽ, ĩ, ī̃, ũ, ū̃, etc.
    — For words ending in a nasal anusvar, this will usually suffice with no extra characters added to the end.
    e.g. आदमियों = ādmiyõ
  2. If a consonant follows the nasalised vowel, the transliteration of the consonant's corresponding nasal consonant follows.
    Gutturals (क, ख, ग, घ, ह) will use ṅ (for )
    Dentals (त, थ, द, ध, ल, स) will use n (for )
    Labials (प, फ, ब, भ, व) will use m (for ), etc.
    — 'n' and 'm' are disambiguated from and by the tilde of the preceding vowel.
    e.g. रंग = rãṅg

NuqtāEdit

The () (नुक़्ता, nuqtā) diacritic describes sounds not found in Sanskrit, and therefore not represented by standard Devanagari. Most of these sounds are found in Persian and English loanwords.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
deva. क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ झ़ फ़ ड़ ढ़
trans. q x ġ z ź, ž f ṛh
IPA [q] [x] [ɣ] [z] [ʒ] [f] [ɽ] [ɽʱ]

OtherEdit

The conjunct ज्ञ, which is a combination of and , while pronounced and transliterated jñ in Sanskrit is transliterated "gy" for Hindi.

is transliterated as "ḷ". थ़ is transliterated as "θ".

Visarga symbol is transliterated as "ḥ", e.g. दूःख (duḥkh), छः (chaḥ).

See alsoEdit

Devanāgarī Transliteration scheme for Print Media where Roman Diacritics resemble to Devanāgarī mātrās.

अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ ए ऐ ओ औ ऍ ऑ अः ऎ ऒ अम्‌ अन्‌ / a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ e ai o au ă ŏ aḥ ẽ õ am‌ an‌

अं आं इं ईं उं ऊं एं ऐं ओं औं ॐ अँ आँ इँ ईँ उँ ऊँ एँ / ȧ ā̇ ï ī̇ u̇ ū̇ ė aï ȯ au̇ OM a̐ ā̐ i̐ ī̐ u̐ ū̐ e̐

क् ख् ग् घ् ङ् / क ख ग घ ङ / k kh g gh ṅ / ka kha ga gha ṅa

च् छ् ज् झ् ञ् / च छ ज झ ञ / ch chh j jh/z ñ / cha chha ja jha/za ña

ट् ठ् ड् ढ् ण् /ट ठ ड ढ ण / ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ /ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa

त् थ् द् ध् न् / त थ द ध न / t th d dh n / ta tha da dha na

प् फ् ब् भ् म् / प फ ब भ म / p ph/f b bh m / pa pha/fa ba bha ma

य् र् ल् ळ् व् ह् / य र ल ळ व ह / y r l ḷ v h / ya ra la ḷa va ha

श् ष् स् ज्ञ् क्ष्‌ त्र् श्र्‌ / श ष स क्ष ज्ञ त्र श्र / sh ṣ s jñ kṣ tr shr / sha ṣa sa kṣa/xa jña tra shra

क़् ख़् ग़् ज़् ड़् ढ़् फ़् ऱ् ऴ् / क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ ड़ ढ़ फ़ ऱ ऴ / ḳ ḳh g̣ j̣ d̤ d̤h f̣ ṛ l̤ / ḳa ḳha g̣a j̣a d̤a d̤ha f̣a ṛa l̤a

क का कि की कु कू कृ कॄ कॢ कॣ के कै को कौ कः कॅ कॉ कॆ कॊ / ka kā ki kī ku kū kṛ kṝ kḷ kḹ ke kai ko kau kaḥ kă kŏ kẽ kõ

कं कां किं कीं कुं कूं कृं कॄ कें कैं कों कौं / kȧ kā̇ kï kī̇ ku̇ kū̇ kṛ kṝ kė kaï kȯ kau̇

कँ काँ किँ कीँ कुँ कूँ केँ / ka̐ kā̐ ki̐ kī̐ ku̐ kū̐ ke̐

The following is a sample text in Hindi with transliteration , of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) – सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।

Anuchchheda 1 (Eka) – Sabhī manuṣyȯ ko gaurava aura adhikārȯ ke viṣaya mė janmajāta svatantratā aura samānatā prāpta haï . Unhė buddhi aura antarātmā kī dena prāpta hai aura paraspara unhė bhāīchāre ke bhāva se bartāva karanā chāhie.

Anuchchhed 1 (Ek) – Sabhī manuṣyȯ ko gaurav aur adhikārȯ ke viṣay mė janmajāt svatantratā aur samānatā prāpta haï . Unhė buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhė bhāīchāre ke bhāv se bartāv karanā chāhie. (The schwa (ə/a) sound at the end of the word is deleted in Hindi)