Old Persian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *(H)utá, from *(H)u, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂u. Cognate with Younger Avestan 𐬎𐬙𐬀 (uta), Parthian [script needed] ('wd), Sanskrit उत (utá).

Mayrhofer and others suggested a further connection with Ancient Greek αὖτε (aûte, again), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂u-te.[1] This connection has been disputed by later scholars due to the difference in usage, but a direct PIE ancestor is still possible; Celtiberian [Term?] (uta) serves an identical function, and on this basis Klein reconstructs Proto-Indo-European *utá.[2]

Conjunction edit

𐎢𐎫𐎠 (u-t-a)[3]

  1. and

Descendants edit

  • Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭥𐭣 (ʾwd /⁠ud⁠/), 𐭠𐭥 (ʾw /⁠u⁠/) 𐭥
    • Classical Persian:
      • Persian: و (o, va)
      • Tajik: у (u), ва (va) (after a pause)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992–2001) “utá”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[1] (in German), volume I, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 212
  2. ^ Klein, Jared S. (1992) “Some Indo-European Systems of Conjunction: Rigveda, Old Persian, Homer”, in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, volume 94, →DOI, pages 1–51
  3. ^ de Vaan, Michiel, Lubotsky, Alexander (2011) “Old Persian”, in Gzella, Holger, editor, Languages from the World of the Bible, Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, →ISBN, page 198