See also: -ttäin



A variant of earlier and still dialectal -ttaen, probably from *-ttaden (possibly related to Estonian -ti, -te and Votic -ttaa), re-extracted from the second infinitive instructive forms of verbs ending in -ttaa. The instructive case has distributive meanings in dialects, with such uses attested in Kalevala.


-ttain (front vowel harmony variant -ttäin)

  1. Forms distributive adverbs.
    aste (grade) + ‎-ttain → ‎asteittain (gradually)
    puoli (half) + ‎-ttain → ‎puolittain (half)
    tusina (dozen) + ‎-ttain → ‎tusinoittain (dozens of)
  2. Forms adverbs expressing manner.
    kiinalainen (Chinese) + ‎-ttain → ‎kiinalaisittain (in a Chinese way)
    tusina (dozen) + ‎-ttain → ‎tusinoittain (by the dozen)
    sivu (page) + ‎-ttain → ‎sivuittain (page by page)
  3. Forms adverbs that express position.
    pitkä (long) + ‎-ttain → ‎pitkittäin (lengthwise)
    loma (gap, space in between) + ‎-ttain → ‎lomittain (interlocked)
    sivu (side) + ‎-ttain → ‎sivuttain (sideways)

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix is usually appended to the weak plural stem; see examples above.

Derived termsEdit