Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-yós

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

SuffixEdit

*(Ø)-yós[1]

  1. Creates adjectives from noun (e.g. *diwyós) or verb (e.g. *kagʰyós/*kagʰyóm) stems.

Usage notesEdit

When affixed to athematic nouns, the thematic vowel of the suffix was stressed and the noun appeared in the oblique stem. When affixed to thematic nouns, the thematic vowel of the noun was dropped; accent remained on the noun stem if the thematic vowel was not originally accented.

InflectionEdit

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *(Ø)-yós *(Ø)-yéh₂
genitive *(Ø)-yósyo *(Ø)-yéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-yós *(Ø)-yóh₁ *(Ø)-yóes
vocative *(Ø)-yé *(Ø)-yóh₁ *(Ø)-yóes
accusative *(Ø)-yóm *(Ø)-yóh₁ *(Ø)-yóms
genitive *(Ø)-yósyo *? *(Ø)-yóHom
ablative *(Ø)-yéad *? *(Ø)-yómos
dative *(Ø)-yóey *? *(Ø)-yómos
locative *(Ø)-yéy, *(Ø)-yóy *? *(Ø)-yóysu
instrumental *(Ø)-yóh₁ *? *(Ø)-yṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-yéh₂ *(Ø)-yéh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-yéh₂es
vocative *(Ø)-yéh₂ *(Ø)-yéh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-yéh₂es
accusative *(Ø)-yā́m *(Ø)-yéh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-yéh₂m̥s
genitive *(Ø)-yéh₂s *? *(Ø)-yéh₂oHom
ablative *(Ø)-yéh₂s *? *(Ø)-yéh₂mos
dative *(Ø)-yéh₂ey *? *(Ø)-yéh₂mos
locative *(Ø)-yéh₂, *(Ø)-yéh₂i *? *(Ø)-yéh₂su
instrumental *(Ø)-yéh₂h₁ *? *(Ø)-yéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-yóm *(Ø)-yóy(h₁) *(Ø)-yéh₂
vocative *(Ø)-yóm *(Ø)-yóy(h₁) *(Ø)-yéh₂
accusative *(Ø)-yóm *(Ø)-yóy(h₁) *(Ø)-yéh₂
genitive *(Ø)-yósyo *? *(Ø)-yóHom
ablative *(Ø)-yéad *? *(Ø)-yómos
dative *(Ø)-yóey *? *(Ø)-yómos
locative *(Ø)-yéy, *(Ø)-yóy *? *(Ø)-yóysu
instrumental *(Ø)-yóh₁ *? *(Ø)-yṓys

Derived termsEdit

  • *e-yós
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: -εῖος (-eîos) (partially)
    • Italic: *-eos

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN